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Reconciliation of Geometry and Perception in Radiation Physics approaches the topic of projective geometry as it applies to radiation physics and attempts to negate its negative reputation. With an original outlook and transversal approach, the book emphasizes common geometric properties and their potential transposition between domains. After defining both radiation and geometric properties, authors Benoit and Pierre Beckers explain the necessity of reconciling geometry and perception in fields like architectural and urban physics, which are notable for the regularity of their forms and the complexity of their interactions.
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Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed the city into a physical problem of prime importance. This book proposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerning specialities as different as meteorology, geography, architecture and urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essential problem of solar radiation. It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around the world on the interaction between solar energy and constructions, combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to better regulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainable city. The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solar irradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban ground measurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up), radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance, radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban Heat Island), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling, geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urban environments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urban planning, with special considerations for solar potential, solar impact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropical climates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation. Contents 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and Viorel Badescu. 3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak. 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation, Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc. 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, Benoit Beckers. 6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch. 7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy. 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, John Mardaljevic and George Janes. 9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga. 10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and Benoit Beckers. 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom van Eekelen. 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng. 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights, Guedi Capeluto. 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monette and Benoit Beckers. Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard. Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Benoit Beckers.
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The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an increased awareness of the role of informatics in radiation therapy. As such, this edition reflects the huge advances made over the last ten years. This book: Provides state of the art content throughout Contains four brand new chapters; image-guided therapy, proton radiation therapy, radiation therapy informatics, and quality and safety improvement Fully revised and expanded imaging chapter discusses the increased role of digital imaging and computed tomography (CT) simulation The chapter on quality and safety contains content in support of new residency training requirements Includes problem and answer sets for self-test This edition is essential reading for radiation oncologists in training, students of medical physics, medical dosimetry, and anyone interested in radiation therapy physics, quality, and safety.
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A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: The atom as an energy system An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures This complete discussion of the basic concepts allows readers to advance their professional skills.
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 199. Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere; an outline of the design and operation of future satellite missions whose objectives are to discover the dominant physical processes that control the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts and to advance our level of understanding of radiation belt dynamics ideally to the point of predictability; and an examination of the current state of knowledge of Earth's radiation belts from past and current spacecraft missions to the inner magnetosphere. Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere will be a useful reference work for the specialist researcher, the student, and the general reader. In addition, the volume could be used as a supplementary text in any graduate-level course in space physics in which radiation belt physics is featured.
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This statistics textbook, with particular emphasis on radiation protection and dosimetry, deals with statistical solutions to problems inherent in health physics measurements and decision making. The authors begin with a description of our current understanding of the statistical nature of physical processes at the atomic level, including radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. Examples are taken from problems encountered in health physics, and the material is presented such that health physicists and most other nuclear professionals will more readily understand the application of statistical principles in the familiar context of the examples. Problems are presented at the end of each chapter, with solutions to selected problems provided online. In addition, numerous worked examples are included throughout the text.
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This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.
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This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics – basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. – are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research – fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral atom recycling and transport, impurity ion transport, the physics of the plasma edge (diffusive and non-diffusive transport, MARFEs, ELMs, the L-H transition, thermal-radiative instabilities, shear suppression of transport, velocity spin-up), etc. – are comprehensively developed and related to the experimental evidence. Operational limits on the performance of future fusion reactors are developed from plasma physics and engineering constraints, and conceptual designs of future fusion power reactors are discussed.
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This is the first text specifically designed to train potential health physicists to think and respond like professionals. Written by a former chairman of the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Panel of Examiners with more than 20 years of professional and academic experience in the field, it offers a balanced presentation of all the theoretical and practical issues essential for a full working knowledge of radiation exposure assessments. As the only book to cover the entire radiation protection field, it includes detailed coverage of the medical, university, reactor, fuel cycle, environmental and accelerator areas, while exploring key topics in radiation basics, external and internal dosimetry, the biological effects of ionizing radiation, and much more besides. Backed by more than 500 worked examples developed within the context of various scenarios and spanning the full spectrum of real-world challenges, it quickly instills in readers the professional acumen and practical skills they need to perform accurate radiation assessments in virtually any routine or emergency situation. The result is a valuable resource for upper-level students and anyone preparing to take the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Examination, as well as for professionals seeking to expand their scope and sharpen their skills.
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This book provides the reader with knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. The author covers faults and failures in ULSI devices induced by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha-rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn how to make numerical models from physical insights, to determine the kind of mathematical approaches that should be implemented to analyze radiation effects. A wide variety of prediction, detection, characterization and mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them, and explains how electronic systems including servers and routers are shut down due to environmental radiation. Provides an understanding of how electronic systems are shut down due to environmental radiation by constructing physical models and numerical algorithms Covers both terrestrial and avionic-level conditions Logically presented with each chapter explaining the background physics to the topic followed by various modelling techniques, and chapter summary Written by a widely-recognized authority in soft-errors in electronic devices Code samples available for download from the Companion Website This book is targeted at researchers and graduate students in nuclear and space radiation, semiconductor physics and electron devices, as well as other areas of applied physics modelling. Researchers and students interested in how a variety of physical phenomena can be modelled and numerically treated will also find this book to present helpful methods.
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An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Further, the text discusses the basic function of the components of scintillation and non-scintillation detector systems. An information technology section discusses PACs and DICOM. There is extensive coverage of quality control procedures, followed by updated chapters on radiation safety practices, radiation biology, and management of radiation accident victims. Clear and concise, this new edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation offers readers: Four new chapters Updated coverage of CT and hybrid scanning systems: PET/CT and SPECT/CT Fresh discussions of the latest technology based on solid state detectors and new scanner designs optimized for dedicated cardiac imaging New coverage of PACs and DICOM systems Expanded coverage of image reconstruction and processing techniques New material on methods of image display Logically structured and clearly written, this is the book of choice for anyone entering the field of nuclear medicine, including nuclear medicine residents and fellows, cardiac nuclear medicine fellows, and nuclear medicine technology students. It is also a handy quick-reference guide for those already working in the field of nuclear physics.
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Eagerly awaited, this second edition of a best-selling text comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. Written by internationally acclaimed authors, the style of the book is to develop the basic physical principles without obscuring them with excessive mathematics. The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including: A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction – designed to appeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids, glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio-molecules A new chapter on x-ray imaging – developed in close cooperation with many of the leading experts in the field Two new chapters covering non-crystalline diffraction and imaging Many important changes to various sections in the book have been made with a view to improving the exposition Four-colour representation throughout the text to clarify key concepts Extensive problems after each chapter There is also supplementary book material for this title available online (http://booksupport.wiley.com). Praise for the previous edition: “The publication of Jens Als-Nielsen and Des McMorrow’s Elements of Modern X-ray Physics is a defining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… a welcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiation professionals and students alike.... The text is now my personal choice for teaching x-ray physics…” – Physics Today, 2002
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Innovative developments in science and technology require a thorough knowledge of applied mathematics, particularly in the field of differential equations and special functions. These are relevant in modeling and computing applications of electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, e.g. in photonics and nanotechnology. The problem of solving partial differential equations remains an important topic that is taught at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics is an accessible and comprehensive treatment of partial differential equations in mathematical physics in a variety of coordinate systems and geometry and their solutions, including a differential geometric formulation, using the method of separation of variables. With problems and modern examples from the fields of nano-technology and other areas of physics. The fluency of the text and the high quality of graphics make the topic easy accessible. The organization of the content by coordinate systems rather than by equation types is unique and offers an easy access. The authors consider recent research results which have led to a much increased pedagogical understanding of not just this topic but of many other related topics in mathematical physics, and which like the explicit discussion on differential geometry shows – yet have not been treated in the older texts. To the benefit of the reader, a summary presents a convenient overview on all special functions covered. Homework problems are included as well as numerical algorithms for computing special functions. Thus this book can serve as a reference text for advanced undergraduate students, as a textbook for graduate level courses, and as a self-study book and reference manual for physicists, theoretically oriented engineers and traditional mathematicians.
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Presents the fundamental concepts of signal processing for all application areas of ionizing radiation This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 original illustrations Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors provides researchers, engineers, and graduate students working in disciplines such as nuclear physics and engineering, environmental and biomedical engineering, and medical physics and radiological science, the knowledge to design their own systems, optimize available systems or to set up new experiments.
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Develops the theory of jet single-time Lagrange geometry and presents modern-day applications Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications guides readers through the advantages of jet single-time Lagrange geometry for geometrical modeling. With comprehensive chapters that outline topics ranging in complexity from basic to advanced, the book explores current and emerging applications across a broad range of fields, including mathematics, theoretical and atmospheric physics, economics, and theoretical biology. The authors begin by presenting basic theoretical concepts that serve as the foundation for understanding how and why the discussed theory works. Subusequent chapters compare the geometrical and physical aspects of jet relativistic time-dependent Lagrange geometry to the classical time-dependent Lagrange geometry. A collection of jet geometrical objects are also examined such as d-tensors, relativistic time-dependent semisprays, harmonic curves, and nonlinear connections. Numerous applications, including the gravitational theory developed by both the Berwald-Moór metric and the Chernov metric, are also presented. Throughout the book, the authors offer numerous examples that illustrate how the theory is put into practice, and they also present numerous applications in which the solutions of first-order ordinary differential equation systems are regarded as harmonic curves on 1-jet spaces. In addition, numerous opportunities are provided for readers to gain skill in applying jet single-time Lagrange geometry to solve a wide range of problems. Extensively classroom-tested to ensure an accessible presentation, Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications is an excellent book for courses on differential geometry, relativity theory, and mathematical models at the graduate level. The book also serves as an excellent reference for researchers, professionals, and academics in physics, biology, mathematics, and economics who would like to learn more about model-providing geometric structures.
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A unique discussion of mathematical methods with applications to quantum mechanics Non-Selfadjoint Operators in Quantum Physics: Mathematical Aspects presents various mathematical constructions influenced by quantum mechanics and emphasizes the spectral theory of non-adjoint operators. Featuring coverage of functional analysis and algebraic methods in contemporary quantum physics, the book discusses the recent emergence of unboundedness of metric operators, which is a serious issue in the study of parity-time-symmetric quantum mechanics. The book also answers mathematical questions that are currently the subject of rigorous analysis with potentially significant physical consequences. In addition to prompting a discussion on the role of mathematical methods in the contemporary development of quantum physics, the book features: Chapter contributions written by well-known mathematical physicists who clarify numerous misunderstandings and misnomers while shedding light on new approaches in this growing area An overview of recent inventions and advances in understanding functional analytic and algebraic methods for non-selfadjoint operators as well as the use of Krein space theory and perturbation theory Rigorous support of the progress in theoretical physics of non-Hermitian systems in addition to mathematically justified applications in various domains of physics such as nuclear and particle physics and condensed matter physics An ideal reference, Non-Selfadjoint Operators in Quantum Physics: Mathematical Aspects is useful for researchers, professionals, and academics in applied mathematics and theoretical and/or applied physics who would like to expand their knowledge of classical applications of quantum tools to address problems in their research. Also a useful resource for recent and related trends, the book is appropriate as a graduate-level and/or PhD-level text for courses on quantum mechanics and mathematical models in physics.
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A comprehensive and readily accessible work for studying the physics of ionized gases, based on «Physics of Ionized Gases». The focus remains on fundamentals rather than on the details required for interesting but difficult applications, such as magnetic confinement fusion, or the phenomena that occur with extremely high-intensity short-pulse lasers. However, this new work benefits from much rearranging of the subject matter within each topic, resulting in a more coherent structure. There are also some significant additions, many of which relate to clusters, while other enlarged sections include plasmas in the atmosphere and their applications. In each case, the emphasis is on a clear and unified understanding of the basic physics that underlies all plasma phenomena. Thus, there are chapters on plasma behavior from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular physics, as well as on the macroscopic phenomena involved in physical kinetics of plasmas and the transport of radiation and of charged particles within plasmas. With this grounding in the fundamental physics of plasmas, the notoriously difficult subjects of nonlinear phenomena and of instabilities in plasmas can then be treated with comprehensive clarity. The work is rounded off with appendices containing information and data of great importance and relevance that are not easily found in other books. Valuable reading for graduate and PhD physics students, and a reference for researchers in low-temperature ionized gases-plasma processing, edge region fusion plasma physics, and atmospheric plasmas.
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In 1935 geneticist Nikolai Timoféeff-Ressovsky, radiation physicist Karl G. Zimmer, and quantum physicist Max Delbrück published “On the Nature of Gene Mutation and Gene Structure,” known subsequently as the “Three-Man Paper.” This seminal paper advanced work on the physical exploration of the structure of the gene through radiation physics and suggested ways in which physics could reveal definite information about gene structure, mutation, and action. Representing a new level of collaboration between physics and biology, it played an important role in the birth of the new field of molecular biology. The paper’s results were popularized for a wide audience in the What is Life? lectures of physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1944. Despite its historical impact on the biological sciences, the paper has remained largely inaccessible because it was only published in a short-lived German periodical. Creating a Physical Biology makes the Three Man Paper available in English for the first time. Brandon Fogel’s translation is accompanied by an introductory essay by Fogel and Phillip Sloan and a set of essays by leading historians and philosophers of biology that explore the context, contents, and subsequent influence of the paper, as well as its importance for the wider philosophical analysis of biological reductionism.Издательство - The University of Chicago Press
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Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces and provides the tools for solving complex engineering problems Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers is a comprehensive guide to applied geometry of surfaces with focus on practical applications in various areas of mechanical engineering. The book is divided into three parts on Part Surfaces, Geometry of Contact of Part Surfaces and Mapping of the Contacting Part Surfaces. Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers combines differential geometry and gearing theory and presents new developments in the elementary theory of enveloping surfaces. Written by a leading expert of the field, this book also provides the reader with the tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering. Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces Provides tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering Combines differential geometry and gearing theory Highlights new developments in the elementary theory of enveloping surfaces Essential reading for researchers and practitioners in mechanical, automotive and aerospace engineering industries; CAD developers; and graduate students in Mechanical Engineering.
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The Physics of Theism provides a timely, critical analysis of the ways in which physics intertwines with religion. Koperski brings clarity to a range of arguments including the fine-tuning argument, naturalism, the laws of nature, and the controversy over Intelligent Design. A single author text providing unprecedented scope and depth of analysis of key issues within the Philosophy of Religion and the Philosophy of Science Critically analyses the ways in which physics is brought into play in matters of religion Self-contained chapters allow readers to directly access specific areas of interest The area is one of considerable interest, and this book is a timely and well-conceived contribution to these debates Written by an accomplished scholar working in the philosophy of physics in a style that renders complex arguments accessible
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A groundbreaking guide dedicated exclusively to the MCRT method in radiation heat transfer and applied optics The Monte Carlo Ray-Trace Method in Radiation Heat Transfer and Applied Optics offers the most modern and up-to-date approach to radiation heat transfer modelling and performance evaluation of optical instruments. The Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) method is based on the statistically predictable behavior of entities, called rays, which describe the paths followed by energy bundles as they are emitted, reflected, scattered, refracted, diffracted and ultimately absorbed. The author – a noted expert on the subject – covers a wide variety of topics including the mathematics and statistics of ray tracing, the physics of thermal radiation, basic principles of geometrical and physical optics, radiant heat exchange among surfaces and within participating media, and the statistical evaluation of uncertainty of results obtained using the method. The book is a guide to help formulate and solve models that accurately describe the distribution of radiant energy in thermal and optical systems of practical engineering interest. This important guide: Combines radiation heat transfer and applied optics into a single discipline Covers the MCRT method, which has emerged as the dominant tool for radiation heat transfer modelling Helps readers to formulate and solve models that describe the distribution of radiant energy Features pages of color images and a wealth of line drawings Written for faculty and graduate students in mechanical and aerospace engineering and applied optics professionals, The Monte Carlo Ray-Trace Method in Radiation Heat Transfer and Applied Optics is the first book dedicated exclusively to the MCRT method.
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An Introduction to Advanced Quantum Physics presents important concepts from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, statistical physics, and quantum physics brought together to discuss the interaction of radiation and matter, selection rules, symmetries and conservation laws, scattering, relativistic quantum mechanics, apparent paradoxes, elementary quantum field theory, electromagnetic and weak interactions, and much more. This book consists of two parts: Part 1 comprises the material suitable for a second course in quantum physics and covers: Electromagnetic Radiation and Matter Scattering Symmetries and Conservation Laws Relativistic Quantum Physics Special Topics Part 2 presents elementary quantum field theory and discusses: Second Quantization of Spin 1/2 and Spin 1 Fields Covariant Perturbation Theory and Applications Quantum Electrodynamics Each chapter concludes with problems to challenge the students’ understanding of the material. This text is intended for graduate and ambitious undergraduate students in physics, material sciences, and related disciplines.
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Fundamental of Nuclear Engineering is derived from over 25 years of teaching undergraduate and graduate courses on nuclear engineering. The material has been extensively class tested and provides the most comprehensive textbook and reference on the fundamentals of nuclear engineering. It includes a broad range of important areas in the nuclear engineering field; nuclear and atomic theory; nuclear reactor physics, design, control/dynamics, safety and thermal-hydraulics; nuclear fuel engineering; and health physics/radiation protection. It also includes the latest information that is missing in traditional texts, such as space radiation. The aim of the book is to provide a source for upper level undergraduate and graduate students studying nuclear engineering.
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Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyse and interpret responses to products perceived through the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It is used to reveal insights into the way in which sensory properties drive consumer acceptance and behaviour, and to design products that best deliver what the consumer wants. It is also used at a more fundamental level to provide a wider understanding of the mechanisms involved in sensory perception and consumer behaviour. Sensory perception of products alters considerably during the course of consumption/use. Special techniques are used in product development to measure these changes in order to optimise product delivery to consumers. Time-Dependent Measures of Perception in Sensory Evaluation explores the many facets of time-dependent perception including mastication and food breakdown, sensory-specific satiety and sensory memory. Both traditional and cutting-edge techniques and applications used to measure temporal changes in sensory perception over time are reviewed, and insights into the way in which sensory properties drive consumer acceptance and behaviour are provided. This book will be a valuable resource for sensory professionals working in academia and industry, including sensory scientists, practitioners, trainers and students; and industry-based researchers in QA/QC, R&D and marketing.
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An extensive update to a classic text Stochastic geometry and spatial statistics play a fundamental role in many modern branches of physics, materials sciences, engineering, biology and environmental sciences. They offer successful models for the description of random two- and three-dimensional micro and macro structures and statistical methods for their analysis. The previous edition of this book has served as the key reference in its field for over 18 years and is regarded as the best treatment of the subject of stochastic geometry, both as a subject with vital applications to spatial statistics and as a very interesting field of mathematics in its own right. This edition: Presents a wealth of models for spatial patterns and related statistical methods. Provides a great survey of the modern theory of random tessellations, including many new models that became tractable only in the last few years. Includes new sections on random networks and random graphs to review the recent ever growing interest in these areas. Provides an excellent introduction to theory and modelling of point processes, which covers some very latest developments. Illustrate the forefront theory of random sets, with many applications. Adds new results to the discussion of fibre and surface processes. Offers an updated collection of useful stereological methods. Includes 700 new references. Is written in an accessible style enabling non-mathematicians to benefit from this book. Provides a companion website hosting information on recent developments in the field www.wiley.com/go/cskm Stochastic Geometry and its Applications is ideally suited for researchers in physics, materials science, biology and ecological sciences as well as mathematicians and statisticians. It should also serve as a valuable introduction to the subject for students of mathematics and statistics.
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The Solvay conferences started in 1911. The first conference on radiation theory and the quanta was held in Brussels. This was a new type of conference and it became the tradition of the Solvay conference; the participants are informed experts in a given field and meet to discuss one or a few mutually related problems of fundamental importance and seek to define the steps for the solution. It is well known that the Solvay conferences shaped the path of physics in the 20th century, as so many mythical personalities like Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Marie Curie, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, actively participated in these conferences. It is a common secret that the Solvay conferences have also served as a platform for the Nobel Prizes.Тhis edition completes the effort to prepare and realise the XXII Solvay Conference on Physics, which has been hosted by the Ministry of Culture in the European Cultural Centre of Delphi with great success. Leading scientists present and discuss the new impressive possibilities in Physics, which are expected to re-shape communication in the years to come. Opening remarks belong to Ilya Prigogine, Nobel Laureate, key founder of chaos theory and Mr. Jacques Solvay, President of the Solvay Institutes
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The book bridges the gap between existing health physics textbooks and reference material needed by a practicing health physicist as the 21st century progresses. This material necessarily encompasses emerging radiation-generating technologies, advances in existing technology, and applications of existing technology to new areas. The book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate science and engineering courses. It is also be a useful reference for scientists and engineers.
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Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids addresses the mechanics and physics of deformable porous materials whose porous space is filled by one or several fluid mixtures interacting with the solid matrix. Coussy uses the language of thermodynamics to frame the discussion of this topic and bridge the gap between physicists and engineers, and organises the material in such a way that individual phases are explored, followed by coupled problems of increasing complexity. This structure allows the reader to build a solid understanding of the physical processes occurring in the fluids and then porous solids. Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids offers a critical reference on the physics of multiphase porous materials – key reading for engineers and researchers in structural and material engineering, concrete, wood and materials science, rock and soil mechanics, mining and oil prospecting, biomechanics.
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Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfully equipped with the necessary logic to develop a full understanding of geometric theorems. Following a presentation of the geometry of ancient Egypt, Babylon, and China, the author addresses mathematical philosophy and logic within the context of works by Thales, Plato, and Aristotle. Next, the mathematics of the classical Greeks is discussed, incorporating the teachings of Pythagoras and his followers along with an overview of lower-level geometry using Euclid's Elements. Subsequent chapters explore the work of Archimedes, Viete's revolutionary contributions to algebra, Descartes' merging of algebra and geometry to solve the Pappus problem, and Desargues' development of projective geometry. The author also supplies an excursion into non-Euclidean geometry, including the three hypotheses of Saccheri and Lambert and the near simultaneous discoveries of Lobachevski and Bolyai. Finally, modern geometry is addressed within the study of manifolds and elliptic geometry inspired by Riemann's work, Poncelet's return to projective geometry, and Klein's use of group theory to characterize different geometries. The book promotes the belief that in order to learn how to write proofs, one needs to read finished proofs, studying both their logic and grammar. Each chapter features a concise introduction to the presented topic, and chapter sections conclude with exercises that are designed to reinforce the material and provide readers with ample practice in writing proofs. In addition, the overall presentation of topics in the book is in chronological order, helping readers appreciate the relevance of geometry within the historical development of mathematics. Well organized and clearly written, Revolutions of Geometry is a valuable book for courses on modern geometry and the history of mathematics at the upper-undergraduate level. It is also a valuable reference for educators in the field of mathematics.
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Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field. Grounding and Shielding: Circuits and Interference, Sixth Edition: Includes new material on vias and field control, capacitors as transmission lines, first energy sources, and high speed designs using boards with only two layers Demonstrates how circuit geometry controls performance from dc to gigahertz Examines the use of multi-shielded transformers in clean-power installations Provides effective techniques for handling noise problems in analog and digital circuits Discusses how to use conductor geometry to improve performance, limit radiation, and reduce susceptibility to all types of hardware and systems Grounding and Shielding: Circuits and Interference, Sixth Edition is an updated guide for circuit design engineers and technicians. It will also serve as a reference for engineers in the semiconductor device industry.
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Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids addresses the mechanics and physics of deformable porous materials whose porous space is filled by one or several fluid mixtures interacting with the solid matrix. Coussy uses the language of thermodynamics to frame the discussion of this topic and bridge the gap between physicists and engineers, and organises the material in such a way that individual phases are explored, followed by coupled problems of increasing complexity. This structure allows the reader to build a solid understanding of the physical processes occurring in the fluids and then porous solids. Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids offers a critical reference on the physics of multiphase porous materials – key reading for engineers and researchers in structural and material engineering, concrete, wood and materials science, rock and soil mechanics, mining and oil prospecting, biomechanics.
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Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics – get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conquer proofs with confidence – follow easy-to-grasp instructions for understanding the components of a formal geometry proof Take triangles in strides – learn how to take in a triangle's sides, analyze its angles, work through an SAS proof, and apply the Pythagorean Theorem Polish up on polygons – get the lowdown on quadrilaterals and other polygons: their angles, areas, properties, perimeters, and much more Open the book and find: Plain-English explanations of geometry terms Tips for tackling geometry proofs The seven members of the quadrilateral family Straight talk on circles Essential triangle formulas The lowdown on 3-D: spheres, cylinders, prisms, and pyramids Ten things to use as reasons in geometry proofs Learn to: Core concepts about the geometry of shapes and geometry proofs Critical theorems, postulates, and definitions The principles and formulas you need to know
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A Modern Course in Statistical Physics is a textbook that illustrates the foundations of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics, and the universal nature of thermodynamic processes, from the point of view of contemporary research problems. The book treats such diverse topics as the microscopic theory of critical phenomena, superfluid dynamics, quantum conductance, light scattering, transport processes, and dissipative structures, all in the framework of the foundations of statistical physics and thermodynamics. It shows the quantum origins of problems in classical statistical physics. One focus of the book is fluctuations that occur due to the discrete nature of matter, a topic of growing importance for nanometer scale physics and biophysics. Another focus concerns classical and quantum phase transitions, in both monatomic and mixed particle systems. This fourth edition extends the range of topics considered to include, for example, entropic forces, electrochemical processes in biological systems and batteries, adsorption processes in biological systems, diamagnetism, the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation, memory effects in Brownian motion, the hydrodynamics of binary mixtures. A set of exercises and problems is to be found at the end of each chapter and, in addition, solutions to a subset of the problems is provided. The appendices cover Exact Differentials, Ergodicity, Number Representation, Scattering Theory, and also a short course on Probability.
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A new, comprehensively updated edition of the acclaimed textbook by F.H. Attix (Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry) taking into account the substantial developments in dosimetry since its first edition. This monograph covers charged and uncharged particle interactions at a level consistent with the advanced use of the Monte Carlo method in dosimetry; radiation quantities, macroscopic behaviour and the characterization of radiation fields and beams are covered in detail. A number of chapters include addenda presenting derivations and discussions that offer new insight into established dosimetric principles and concepts. The theoretical aspects of dosimetry are given in the comprehensive chapter on cavity theory, followed by the description of primary measurement standards, ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and solid state detectors. Chapters on applications include reference dosimetry for standard and small fields in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures, dosimetry of unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources, and neutron beam dosimetry. The topics are presented in a logical, easy-to-follow sequence and the text is supplemented by numerous illustrative diagrams, tables and appendices. For senior undergraduate- or graduate-level students and professionals.
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An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series Includes information on recent key discoveries including: An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, byond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website Advanced material appears in optional starred sections
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Provides a concise overview of the core undergraduate physics and applied mathematics curriculum for students and practitioners of science and engineering Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers summarizes college and university level physics together with the mathematics frequently encountered in engineering and physics calculations. The presentation provides straightforward, coherent explanations of underlying concepts emphasizing essential formulas, derivations, examples, and computer programs. Content that should be thoroughly mastered and memorized is clearly identified while unnecessary technical details are omitted. Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers is an ideal resource for undergraduate science and engineering students and practitioners, students reviewing for the GRE and graduate-level comprehensive exams, and general readers seeking to improve their comprehension of undergraduate physics. Covers topics frequently encountered in undergraduate physics, in particular those appearing in the Physics GRE subject examination Reviews relevant areas of undergraduate applied mathematics, with an overview chapter on scientific programming Provides simple, concise explanations and illustrations of underlying concepts Succinct yet comprehensive, Fundamental Math and Physics for Scientists and Engineers constitutes a reference for science and engineering students, practitioners and non-practitioners alike.
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Optimal aircraft design is impossible without a parametric representation of the geometry of the airframe. We need a mathematical model equipped with a set of controls, or design variables, which generates different candidate airframe shapes in response to changes in the values of these variables. This model's objectives are to be flexible and concise, and capable of yielding a wide range of shapes with a minimum number of design variables. Moreover, the process of converting these variables into aircraft geometries must be robust. Alas, flexibility, conciseness and robustness can seldom be achieved simultaneously. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design: Geometry and Optimization addresses this problem by navigating the subtle trade-offs between the competing objectives of geometry parameterization. It beginswith the fundamentals of geometry-centred aircraft design, followed by a review of the building blocks of computational geometries, the curve and surface formulations at the heart of aircraft geometry. The authors then cover a range of legacy formulations in the build-up towards a discussion of the most flexible shape models used in aerodynamic design (with a focus on lift generating surfaces). The book takes a practical approach and includes MATLAB®, Python and Rhinoceros® code, as well as ‘real-life’ example case studies. Key features: Covers effective geometry parameterization within the context of design optimization Demonstrates how geometry parameterization is an important element of modern aircraft design Includes code and case studies which enable the reader to apply each theoretical concept either as an aid to understanding or as a building block of their own geometry model Accompanied by a website hosting codes Aircraft Aerodynamic Design: Geometry and Optimization is a practical guide for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace industry, and a reference for graduate and undergraduate students in aircraft design and multidisciplinary design optimization.
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Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is electromagnetic radiation coming from the sun, with a medium wavelength which is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer. The biological effects of UV-B are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV-B radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. It is considered particularly harmful to the environment and living things, but what have scientific studies actually shown? UV-B Radiation: From Environmental Stressor to Regulator of Plant Growth presents a comprehensive overview of the origins, current state, and future horizons of scientific research on ultraviolet-B radiation and its perception in plants. Chapters explore all facets of UV-B research, including the basics of how UV-B's shorter wavelength radiation from the sun reaches the Earth's surface, along with its impact on the environment's biotic components and on human biological systems. Chapters also address the dramatic shift in UV-B research in recent years, reflecting emerging technologies, showing how historic research which focused exclusively on the harmful environmental effects of UV-B radiation has now given way to studies on potential benefits to humans. Topics include: UV-B and its climatology UV-B and terrestrial ecosystems Plant responses to UV-B stress UB- B avoidance mechanisms UV-B and production of secondary metabolites Discovery of UVR8 Timely and important, UV-B Radiation: From Environmental Stressor to Regulator of Plant Growth is an invaluable resource for environmentalists, researchers and students who are into the state-of-the-art research being done on exposure to UV-B radiation.
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Detailed reviews of new and emerging topics in chemical physics presented by leading experts The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. Volume 153 of Advances in Chemical Physics features six expertly written contributions: Recent advances of ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy for molecules in solution Scaling perspective on intramolecular vibrational energy flow: analogies, insights, and challenges Longest relaxation time of relaxation processes for classical and quantum Brownian motion in a potential escape rate theory approach Local fluctuations in solution: theory and applications Macroscopic effects of microscopic heterogeneity Ab initio methodology for pseudospin Hamiltonians of anisotropic magnetic centers Reviews published in Advances in Chemical Physics are typically longer than those published in journals, providing the space needed for readers to fully grasp the topic: the fundamentals as well as the latest discoveries, applications, and emerging avenues of research. Extensive cross-referencing enables readers to explore the primary research studies underlying each topic. Advances in Chemical Physics is ideal for introducing novices to topics in chemical physics. Moreover, the series provides the foundation needed for more experienced researchers to advance their own research studies and continue to expand the boundaries of our knowledge in chemical physics.
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Modern electrodynamics in different media is a wide branch of electrodynamics which combines the exact theory of electromagnetic fields in the presence of electric charges and currents with statistical description of these fields in gases, plasmas, liquids and solids; dielectrics, conductors and superconductors. It is widely used in physics and in other natural sciences (such as astrophysics and geophysics, biophysics, ecology and evolution of terrestrial climate), and in various technological applications (radio electronics, technology of artificial materials, laser-based technological processes, propagation of bunches of charges particles, linear and nonlinear electromagnetic waves, etc.). Electrodynamics of matter is based on the exact fundamental (microscopic) electrodynamics but is supplemented with specific descriptions of electromagnetic fields in various media using the methods of statistical physics, quantum mechanics, physics of condensed matter (including theory of superconductivity), physical kinetics and plasma physics. This book presents in one unique volume a systematic description of the main electrodynamic phenomena in matter: – A large variety of theoretical approaches used in describing various media – Numerous important manifestations of electrodynamics in matter (magnetic materials, superconductivity, magnetic hydrodynamics, holography, radiation in crystals, solitons, etc.) – A description of the applications used in different branches of physics and many other fields of natural sciences – Describes the whole complexity of electrodynamics in matter including material at different levels. – Oriented towards 3-4 year bachelors, masters, and PhD students, as well as lectures, and engineers and scientists working in the field. – The reader will need a basic knowledge of general physics, higher mathematics, classical mechanics and microscopic (fundamental) electrodynamics at the standard university level – All examples and problems are described in detail in the text to help the reader learn how to solve problems – Advanced problems are marked with one asterisk, and the most advanced ones with two asterisks. Some problems are recommended to be solved first, and are are marked by filled dots; they are more general and important or contain results used in other problems.
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Physics of Energy Sourcesprovides readers with a balanced presentation of the fundamental physics needed to understand and analyze conventional and renewable energy sources including nuclear, solar, wind and water power. It also presents various ways in which energy can be stored for future use. The book is an informative and authoritative text for students in the physical sciences and engineering and is based on a lecture course given regularly by the author. With the ever increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly and reliable sources of energy, the need for scientists and engineers equipped to tackle the challenges of developing and improving upon commercially viable energy sources has never been more urgent. By focusing on the physical principles governing energy production, storage, and transmission, this book provides readers with a solid foundation in the science and technology of energy sources. Physics of Energy Sources features include: Analyses of conventional and renewable energy sources in terms of underlying physical principles Integrated application of a wide range of physics, from classical to quantum physics Coverage of nuclear, wind, wave, tidal, hydroelectric, geothermal and solar power, including many practical systems Consideration of efficiency for power production as well as energy storage and transportation Consideration of key environmental issues Worked examples in text, and problems & solutions to encourage understanding Derivation of formulae with a minimum of mathematical complexity
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A comprehensive coverage of the physical properties and real-world applications of magnetic nanostructures This book discusses how the important properties of materials such as the cohesive energy, and the electronic and vibrational structures are affected when materials have at least one length in the nanometer range. The author uses relatively simple models of the solid state to explain why these changes in the size and dimension in the nanometer regime occur. The text also reviews the physics of magnetism and experimental methods of measuring magnetic properties necessary to understanding how nanosizing affects magnetism. Various kinds of magnetic structures are presented by the author in order to explain how nanosizing influences their magnetic properties. The book also presents potential and actual applications of nanomaterials in the fields of medicine and computer data storage. Physics of Magnetic Nanostructures: Covers the magnetism in carbon and born nitride nanostructures, bulk nanostructured magnetic materials, nanostructured magnetic semiconductors, and the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures Discusses emerging applications of nanomaterials such as targeted delivery of drugs, enhancement of images in MRI, ferrofluids, and magnetic computer data storage Includes end-of-chapter exercises and five appendices Physics of Magnetic Nanostructures is written for senior undergraduate and graduate students in physics and nanotechnology, material scientists, chemists, and physicists.
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“This textbook, Radiation Oncology in Palliative Cancer Care, represents the full evolution of radiation therapy, and of oncology in general. ( … ) [It] is an acknowledgment that palliative radiotherapy is now a sub-specialty of radiation oncology. This formally makes palliative radiotherapy a priority within patient care, academic research, quality assurance, and medical education.” – From the Foreword by Nora Janjan, MD, MPSA, MBA, National Center for Policy Analysis, Dallas, TX, USA Palliative Medicine is the professional medical practice of prevention and relief of suffering and the support of the best possible quality of life for patients and their families, regardless of the stage of the disease or the need for other therapies. The most common cause for palliative care referral is terminal cancer, and a large proportion of those referrals include patients who will need palliative radiotherapy during the course of their disease. Still, there are barriers to coordinated care between radiation oncologists and palliative care physicians that differ from one country to another. Until now, one overarching limitation to appropriate concurrent care between the specialties across all countries has been the lack of a comprehensive yet concise reference resource that educates each of the specialties about the potential synergistic effects of their cooperation. This book fills that void. Radiation Oncology in Palliative Cancer Care: Is the first book-length treatment of this important topic available on the market Is authored by world-renowned experts in radiation oncology and palliative medicine Uses a multidisciplinary approach to content and patient treatment Features decision trees for palliative radiotherapy based upon factors such as patient performance status and prognosis Pays careful attention to current best practices and controversies in the delivery of end-of-life cancer care This book is an important resource for practicing radiation oncologists and radiation oncologists in training, as well as hospice and palliative medicine physicians and nurses, medical oncologists, and geriatricians.
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Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics maintains a balance of accessibility and scholarly rigor to provide students with a complete introduction to the physics of speech. Newly updated to reflect the latest advances in the field Features a balanced and student-friendly approach to speech, with engaging side-bars on related topics Includes suggested readings and exercises designed to review and expand upon the material in each chapter, complete with selected answers Presents a new chapter on speech perception that addresses theoretical issues as well as practical concerns
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The seminal text on fractal geometry for students and researchers: extensively revised and updated with new material, notes and references that reflect recent directions. Interest in fractal geometry continues to grow rapidly, both as a subject that is fascinating in its own right and as a concept that is central to many areas of mathematics, science and scientific research. Since its initial publication in 1990 Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications has become a seminal text on the mathematics of fractals. The book introduces and develops the general theory and applications of fractals in a way that is accessible to students and researchers from a wide range of disciplines. Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications is an excellent course book for undergraduate and graduate students studying fractal geometry, with suggestions for material appropriate for a first course indicated. The book also provides an invaluable foundation and reference for researchers who encounter fractals not only in mathematics but also in other areas across physics, engineering and the applied sciences. Provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the mathematical theory and applications of fractals Carefully explains each topic using illustrative examples and diagrams Includes the necessary mathematical background material, along with notes and references to enable the reader to pursue individual topics Features a wide range of exercises, enabling readers to consolidate their understanding Supported by a website with solutions to exercises and additional material http://www.wileyeurope.com/fractal Leads onto the more advanced sequel Techniques in Fractal Geometry (also by Kenneth Falconer and available from Wiley)
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This first book to cover the interaction of polymers with radiation from the entire electromagnetic spectrum adopts a multidisciplinary approach to bridge polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry, photophysics and materials science. The text is equally unique in its scope, devoting equal amounts of attention to the three aspects of synthesis, characterization, and applications. The first part deals with the interaction of polymers with non-ionizing radiation in the frequency-range from sub-terahertz via infrared radiation to visible and ultraviolet light, while the second covers interaction with ionizing radiation from the extreme ultraviolet to ?-ray photons. The result is a systematic overview of how both types of radiation can be used for different polymerization approaches, spectroscopy methods and lithography techniques. Authored by a world-renowned researcher and teacher with over 40 years of experience in the field, this is a highly practical and authoritative guide.
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This book is a comprehensive account of five extended modules covering the key branches of twentieth-century theoretical physics, taught by the author over a period of three decades to students on bachelor and master university degree courses in both physics and theoretical physics. The modules cover nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, thermal and statistical physics, many-body theory, classical field theory (including special relativity and electromagnetism), and, finally, relativistic quantum mechanics and gauge theories of quark and lepton interactions, all presented in a single, self-contained volume. In a number of universities, much of the material covered (for example, on Einstein’s general theory of relativity, on the BCS theory of superconductivity, and on the Standard Model, including the theory underlying the prediction of the Higgs boson) is taught in postgraduate courses to beginning PhD students. A distinctive feature of the book is that full, step-by-step mathematical proofs of all essential results are given, enabling a student who has completed a high-school mathematics course and the first year of a university physics degree course to understand and appreciate the derivations of very many of the most important results of twentieth-century theoretical physics.
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This is the first detailed description in English of radiation and polymeric material interaction and the influences of thermal and optical material properties. As such, it provides comprehensive information on material and process characteristics as well as applications regarding plastic laser welding. The first part of this practical book introduces the structure and physical properties of plastics, before discussing the interaction of material and radiation in the NIR and IR spectral range. This is followed by an overview of the physical foundations of laser radiation and laser sources used for plastic welding. The third part describes the main processes of laser welding thermoplastics, as well as possibilities of process control, design of joint geometry, material compatibilities and adaptation of absorption of plastics to NIR radiation. Finally, the author explains applications of laser welding plastics using several industrial case studies from the automotive industry, household goods, and medical devices. Tailored to the needs of everyone dealing with laser welding of plastics, especially engineers in packaging, component manufacturing, and the medical industry.
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This fully updated and enhanced third edition offers a highly practical, application-based review of the biological basis of radiation oncology and the clinical efficacy of radiation therapy. Revised edition of the classic reference in radiation oncology from Dr. C.C. Wang, whose practical approach to clinical application was legendary Includes the latest developments in the field: intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image guided radiation therapy, and particle beam therapy Includes two brand new chapters Palliative Radiotherapy, and Statistics in Radiation Oncology Features a vibrant and extremely comprehensive head and neck section Provides immediately applicable treatment algorithms for each tumor
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This thoroughly revised and updated third edition focuses on the utilization of sustainable energy and mitigating climate change, serving as an introduction to physics in the context of societal problems. A distinguishing feature of the text is the discussion of spectroscopy and spectroscopic methods as a crucial means to quantitatively analyze and monitor the condition of the environment, the factors determining climate change, and all aspects of energy conversion. This textbook will be invaluable to students in physics and related subjects, and supplementary materials are available on a companion website.
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This collection of fundamental formulae, up-to-date references and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering. Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings, with extended coverage of fusion plasma, plasma in stellar winds, reaction rates, engineering plasma and many other topics. The text is also unique in treating astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline.
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The Advances in Chemical Physics series—the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Kinetics and thermodynamics of fluctuation-induced transitions in multistable systems (G. Nicolis and C. Nicolis) Dynamical rare event simulation techniques for equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems (Titus S. van Erp) Confocal depolarized dynamic light scattering (M. Potenza, T. Sanvito, V. Degiorgio, and M. Giglio) The two-step mechanism and the solution-crystal spinodal for nucleation of crystals in solution (Peter G. Vekilov) Experimental studies of two-step nucleation during two-dimensional crystallization of colloidal particles with short-range attraction (John R. Savage, Liquan Pei, and Anthony D. Dinsmore) On the role of metastable intermediate states in the homogeneous nucleation of solids from solution (James F. Lutsko) Effects of protein size on the high-concentration/low-concentration phase transition (Patrick Grosfils) Geometric constraints in the self-assembly of mineral dendrites and platelets (John J. Kozak) What can mesoscopic level in situ observations teach us about kinetics and thermodynamics of protein crystallization? (Mike Sleutel, Dominique Maes, and Alexander Van Driessche) The ability of silica to induce biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate (Matthias Kellermeier, Emilio Melero-GarcÍa, Werner Kunz, and Juan Manuel GarcÍa-Ruiz)
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The cutting edge of research in chemical physics Each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series discusses aspects of the state of diverse subjects in chemical physics and related fields, with chapters written by top researchers in the field. Reviews published in Advances in Chemical Physics are typically longer than those published in journals, providing the space needed for readers to fully grasp the topic, including fundamentals, latest discoveries, applications, and emerging avenues of research. Volume 155 explores: Modeling viral capsid assembly Charges at aqueous interfaces, including the development of computational approaches in direct contact with the experiment Theory and simulation advances in solute precipitate nucleation A computational viewpoint of water in the liquid state Construction of energy functions for lattice heteropolymer models, including efficient encodings for constraint satisfaction programming and quantum annealing Advances in Chemical Physics is ideal for introducing novices to topics in chemical physics and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to its study. The series also provides the foundation needed for more experienced researchers to advance research studies.
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The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. This volume explores the following topics: Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory for Associating Molecules Path Integrals and Effective Potentials in the Study of Monatomic Fluids at Equilibrium Sponteneous Symmetry Breaking in Matter Induced by Degeneracies and Pseudogeneracies Mean-Field Electrostatics Beyond the Point-Charge Description First Passage Processes in Cellular Biology Theoretical Modeling of Vibrational Spectra and Proton Tunneling in Hydroen-Bonded Systems
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This book introduces the basic concepts necessary to understand Single Event phenomena which could cause random performance errors and catastrophic failures to electronics devices. As miniaturization of electronics components advances, electronics components are more susceptible in the radiation environment. The book includes a discussion of the radiation environments in space and in the atmosphere, radiation rate prediction depending on the orbit to allow electronics engineers to design and select radiation tolerant components and systems, and single event prediction.
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Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere offers a concise and thorough introduction on how basic thermodynamics naturally leads on to advanced topics in atmospheric physics. The book starts by covering the basics of thermodynamics and its applications in atmospheric science. The later chapters describe major applications, specific to more specialized areas of atmospheric physics, including vertical structure and stability, cloud formation, and radiative processes. The book concludes with a discussion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to the atmosphere. This book provides a thorough introduction and invaluable grounding for specialised literature on the subject. Introduces a wide range of areas associated with atmospheric physics Starts from basic level thermal physics Ideally suited for readers with a general physics background Self-assessment questions included for each chapter Supplementary website to accompany the book
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Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.
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Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which provides the foundation for the rest of the material covered throughout; Part Two discusses Euclidean transformations of the plane, as well as groups and their use in studying transformations; and Part Three covers inversive and projective geometry as natural extensions of Euclidean geometry. In addition to featuring real-world applications throughout, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective includes: Multiple entertaining and elegant geometry problems at the end of each section for every level of study Fully worked examples with exercises to facilitate comprehension and retention Unique topical coverage, such as the theorems of Ceva and Menalaus and their applications An approach that prepares readers for the art of logical reasoning, modeling, and proofs The book is an excellent textbook for courses in introductory geometry, elementary geometry, modern geometry, and history of mathematics at the undergraduate level for mathematics majors, as well as for engineering and secondary education majors. The book is also ideal for anyone who would like to learn the various applications of elementary geometry.
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Foundations of Voice Studies provides a comprehensive description and analysis of the multifaceted role that voice quality plays in human existence. Offers a unique interdisciplinary perspective on all facets of voice perception, illustrating why listeners hear what they do and how they reach conclusions based on voice quality Integrates voice literature from a multitude of sources and disciplines Supplemented with practical and approachable examples, including a companion website with sound files at www.wiley.com/go/voicestudies Explores the choice of various voices in advertising and broadcasting, and voice perception in singing voices and forensic applications Provides a straightforward and thorough overview of vocal physiology and control
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The Advances in Chemical Physics series—the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Hydrogen Bond Topology and Proton Ordering in Ice and Water Clusters (Sherwin J. Singer and Chris Knight) Molecular Inner-Shell Spectroscopy, Arpis Technique and Its Applications (Eiji Shigemasa and Nobuhiro Kosugi) Geometric Optimal Control of Simple Quantum Systems: Geometric Optimal Control Theory (Dominique Sugny) Density Matrix Equation for a Bathed Small System and its Application to Molecular Magnets (D. A. Garanin) A Fractional Langevin Equation Approach to Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Jennie Cooke) Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed the city into a physical problem of prime importance. This book proposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerning specialities as different as meteorology, geography, architecture and urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essential problem of solar radiation. It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around the world on the interaction between solar energy and constructions, combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to better regulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainable city. The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solar irradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban ground measurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up), radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance, radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban Heat Island), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling, geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urban environments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urban planning, with special considerations for solar potential, solar impact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropical climates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation. Contents 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and Viorel Badescu. 3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak. 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation, Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc. 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, Benoit Beckers. 6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch. 7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy. 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, John Mardaljevic and George Janes. 9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga. 10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and Benoit Beckers. 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom van Eekelen. 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng. 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights, Guedi Capeluto. 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monette and Benoit Beckers. Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard. Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Benoit Beckers.