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In Advanced Equity Derivatives: Volatility and Correlation, Sébastien Bossu reviews and explains the advanced concepts used for pricing and hedging equity exotic derivatives. Designed for financial modelers, option traders and sophisticated investors, the content covers the most important theoretical and practical extensions of the Black-Scholes model. Each chapter includes numerous illustrations and a short selection of problems, covering key topics such as implied volatility surface models, pricing with implied distributions, local volatility models, volatility derivatives, correlation measures, correlation trading, local correlation models and stochastic correlation. The author has a dual professional and academic background, making Advanced Equity Derivatives: Volatility and Correlation the perfect reference for quantitative researchers and mathematically savvy finance professionals looking to acquire an in-depth understanding of equity exotic derivatives pricing and hedging.
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This comprehensive guide offers traders, quants, and students the tools and techniques for using advanced models for pricing options. The accompanying website includes data files, such as options prices, stock prices, or index prices, as well as all of the codes needed to use the option and volatility models described in the book. Praise for Option Pricing Models & Volatility Using Excel-VBA «Excel is already a great pedagogical tool for teaching option valuation and risk management. But the VBA routines in this book elevate Excel to an industrial-strength financial engineering toolbox. I have no doubt that it will become hugely successful as a reference for option traders and risk managers.» —Peter Christoffersen, Associate Professor of Finance, Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University «This book is filled with methodology and techniques on how to implement option pricing and volatility models in VBA. The book takes an in-depth look into how to implement the Heston and Heston and Nandi models and includes an entire chapter on parameter estimation, but this is just the tip of the iceberg. Everyone interested in derivatives should have this book in their personal library.» —Espen Gaarder Haug, option trader, philosopher, and author of Derivatives Models on Models «I am impressed. This is an important book because it is the first book to cover the modern generation of option models, including stochastic volatility and GARCH.» —Steven L. Heston, Assistant Professor of Finance, R.H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland
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An in-depth guide to understanding probability distributions and financial modeling for the purposes of investment management In Financial Models with Lévy Processes and Volatility Clustering, the expert author team provides a framework to model the behavior of stock returns in both a univariate and a multivariate setting, providing you with practical applications to option pricing and portfolio management. They also explain the reasons for working with non-normal distribution in financial modeling and the best methodologies for employing it. The book's framework includes the basics of probability distributions and explains the alpha-stable distribution and the tempered stable distribution. The authors also explore discrete time option pricing models, beginning with the classical normal model with volatility clustering to more recent models that consider both volatility clustering and heavy tails. Reviews the basics of probability distributions Analyzes a continuous time option pricing model (the so-called exponential Lévy model) Defines a discrete time model with volatility clustering and how to price options using Monte Carlo methods Studies two multivariate settings that are suitable to explain joint extreme events Financial Models with Lévy Processes and Volatility Clustering is a thorough guide to classical probability distribution methods and brand new methodologies for financial modeling.
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Presents inference and simulation of stochastic process in the field of model calibration for financial times series modelled by continuous time processes and numerical option pricing. Introduces the bases of probability theory and goes on to explain how to model financial times series with continuous models, how to calibrate them from discrete data and further covers option pricing with one or more underlying assets based on these models. Analysis and implementation of models goes beyond the standard Black and Scholes framework and includes Markov switching models, Lévy models and other models with jumps (e.g. the telegraph process); Topics other than option pricing include: volatility and covariation estimation, change point analysis, asymptotic expansion and classification of financial time series from a statistical viewpoint. The book features problems with solutions and examples. All the examples and R code are available as an additional R package, therefore all the examples can be reproduced.
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This book covers foreign exchange options from the point of view of the finance practitioner. It contains everything a quant or trader working in a bank or hedge fund would need to know about the mathematics of foreign exchange—not just the theoretical mathematics covered in other books but also comprehensive coverage of implementation, pricing and calibration. With content developed with input from traders and with examples using real-world data, this book introduces many of the more commonly requested products from FX options trading desks, together with the models that capture the risk characteristics necessary to price these products accurately. Crucially, this book describes the numerical methods required for calibration of these models – an area often neglected in the literature, which is nevertheless of paramount importance in practice. Thorough treatment is given in one unified text to the following features: Correct market conventions for FX volatility surface construction Adjustment for settlement and delayed delivery of options Pricing of vanillas and barrier options under the volatility smile Barrier bending for limiting barrier discontinuity risk near expiry Industry strength partial differential equations in one and several spatial variables using finite differences on nonuniform grids Fourier transform methods for pricing European options using characteristic functions Stochastic and local volatility models, and a mixed stochastic/local volatility model Three-factor long-dated FX model Numerical calibration techniques for all the models in this work The augmented state variable approach for pricing strongly path-dependent options using either partial differential equations or Monte Carlo simulation Connecting mathematically rigorous theory with practice, this is the essential guide to foreign exchange options in the context of the real financial marketplace.
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Popular guide to options pricing and position sizing for quant traders In this second edition of this bestselling book, Sinclair offers a quantitative model for measuring volatility in order to gain an edge in everyday option trading endeavors. With an accessible, straightforward approach, he guides traders through the basics of option pricing, volatility measurement, hedging, money management, and trade evaluation. This new edition includes new chapters on the dynamics of realized and implied volatilities, trading the variance premium and using options to trade special situations in equity markets. Filled with volatility models including brand new option trades for quant traders Options trader Euan Sinclair specializes in the design and implementation of quantitative trading strategies Volatility Trading, Second Edition + Website outlines strategies for defining a true edge in the market using options to trade volatility profitably.
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Bachelorarbeit aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich BWL - Investition und Finanzierung, Note: 1,2, EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: The Black-Scholes (or Black-Scholes-Merton) Model has become the standard model for the pricing of options and can surely be seen as one of the main reasons for the growth of the derivative market after the model´s introduction in 1973. As a consequence, the inventors of the model, Robert Merton, Myron Scholes, and without doubt also Fischer Black, if he had not died in 1995, were awarded the Nobel prize for economics in 1997.The model, however, makes some strict assumptions that must hold true for accurate pricing of an option. The most important one is constant volatility, whereas empirical evidence shows that volatility is heteroscedastic. This leads to increased mispricing of options especially in the case of out of the money options as well as to a phenomenon known as volatility smile. As a consequence, researchers introduced various approaches to expand the model by allowing the volatility to be non-constant and to follow a sto-chastic process. It is the objective of this thesis to investigate if the pricing accuracy of the Black-Scholes model can be significantly improved by applying a stochastic volatility model.
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Financial modelling Theory, Implementation and Practice with Matlab Source Jörg Kienitz and Daniel Wetterau Financial Modelling – Theory, Implementation and Practice with MATLAB Source is a unique combination of quantitative techniques, the application to financial problems and programming using Matlab. The book enables the reader to model, design and implement a wide range of financial models for derivatives pricing and asset allocation, providing practitioners with complete financial modelling workflow, from model choice, deriving prices and Greeks using (semi-) analytic and simulation techniques, and calibration even for exotic options. The book is split into three parts. The first part considers financial markets in general and looks at the complex models needed to handle observed structures, reviewing models based on diffusions including stochastic-local volatility models and (pure) jump processes. It shows the possible risk-neutral densities, implied volatility surfaces, option pricing and typical paths for a variety of models including SABR, Heston, Bates, Bates-Hull-White, Displaced-Heston, or stochastic volatility versions of Variance Gamma, respectively Normal Inverse Gaussian models and finally, multi-dimensional models. The stochastic-local-volatility Libor market model with time-dependent parameters is considered and as an application how to price and risk-manage CMS spread products is demonstrated. The second part of the book deals with numerical methods which enables the reader to use the models of the first part for pricing and risk management, covering methods based on direct integration and Fourier transforms, and detailing the implementation of the COS, CONV, Carr-Madan method or Fourier-Space-Time Stepping. This is applied to pricing of European, Bermudan and exotic options as well as the calculation of the Greeks. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is outlined and bridge sampling is discussed in a Gaussian setting and for Lévy processes. Computation of Greeks is covered using likelihood ratio methods and adjoint techniques. A chapter on state-of-the-art optimization algorithms rounds up the toolkit for applying advanced mathematical models to financial problems and the last chapter in this section of the book also serves as an introduction to model risk. The third part is devoted to the usage of Matlab, introducing the software package by describing the basic functions applied for financial engineering. The programming is approached from an object-oriented perspective with examples to propose a framework for calibration, hedging and the adjoint method for calculating Greeks in a Libor market model. Source code used for producing the results and analysing the models is provided on the author's dedicated website, http://www.mathworks.de/matlabcentral/fileexchange/authors/246981.
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Tap into the power of the most popular stochastic volatility model for pricing equity derivatives Since its introduction in 1993, the Heston model has become a popular model for pricing equity derivatives, and the most popular stochastic volatility model in financial engineering. This vital resource provides a thorough derivation of the original model, and includes the most important extensions and refinements that have allowed the model to produce option prices that are more accurate and volatility surfaces that better reflect market conditions. The book's material is drawn from research papers and many of the models covered and the computer codes are unavailable from other sources. The book is light on theory and instead highlights the implementation of the models. All of the models found here have been coded in Matlab and C#. This reliable resource offers an understanding of how the original model was derived from Ricatti equations, and shows how to implement implied and local volatility, Fourier methods applied to the model, numerical integration schemes, parameter estimation, simulation schemes, American options, the Heston model with time-dependent parameters, finite difference methods for the Heston PDE, the Greeks, and the double Heston model. A groundbreaking book dedicated to the exploration of the Heston model—a popular model for pricing equity derivatives Includes a companion website, which explores the Heston model and its extensions all coded in Matlab and C# Written by Fabrice Douglas Rouah a quantitative analyst who specializes in financial modeling for derivatives for pricing and risk management Engaging and informative, this is the first book to deal exclusively with the Heston Model and includes code in Matlab and C# for pricing under the model, as well as code for parameter estimation, simulation, finite difference methods, American options, and more.
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The FX options market represents one of the most liquid and strongly competitive markets in the world, and features many technical subtleties that can seriously harm the uninformed and unaware trader. This book is a unique guide to running an FX options book from the market maker perspective. Striking a balance between mathematical rigour and market practice and written by experienced practitioner Antonio Castagna, the book shows readers how to correctly build an entire volatility surface from the market prices of the main structures. Starting with the basic conventions related to the main FX deals and the basic traded structures of FX options, the book gradually introduces the main tools to cope with the FX volatility risk. It then goes on to review the main concepts of option pricing theory and their application within a Black-Scholes economy and a stochastic volatility environment. The book also introduces models that can be implemented to price and manage FX options before examining the effects of volatility on the profits and losses arising from the hedging activity. Coverage includes: how the Black-Scholes model is used in professional trading activity the most suitable stochastic volatility models sources of profit and loss from the Delta and volatility hedging activity fundamental concepts of smile hedging major market approaches and variations of the Vanna-Volga method volatility-related Greeks in the Black-Scholes model pricing of plain vanilla options, digital options, barrier options and the less well known exotic options tools for monitoring the main risks of an FX options’ book The book is accompanied by a CD Rom featuring models in VBA, demonstrating many of the approaches described in the book.
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A complete guide to the theory and practice of volatility models in financial engineering Volatility has become a hot topic in this era of instant communications, spawning a great deal of research in empirical finance and time series econometrics. Providing an overview of the most recent advances, Handbook of Volatility Models and Their Applications explores key concepts and topics essential for modeling the volatility of financial time series, both univariate and multivariate, parametric and non-parametric, high-frequency and low-frequency. Featuring contributions from international experts in the field, the book features numerous examples and applications from real-world projects and cutting-edge research, showing step by step how to use various methods accurately and efficiently when assessing volatility rates. Following a comprehensive introduction to the topic, readers are provided with three distinct sections that unify the statistical and practical aspects of volatility: Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity and Stochastic Volatility presents ARCH and stochastic volatility models, with a focus on recent research topics including mean, volatility, and skewness spillovers in equity markets Other Models and Methods presents alternative approaches, such as multiplicative error models, nonparametric and semi-parametric models, and copula-based models of (co)volatilities Realized Volatility explores issues of the measurement of volatility by realized variances and covariances, guiding readers on how to successfully model and forecast these measures Handbook of Volatility Models and Their Applications is an essential reference for academics and practitioners in finance, business, and econometrics who work with volatility models in their everyday work. The book also serves as a supplement for courses on risk management and volatility at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels.
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In the modern economic world, the options contracts are used because they allow to hedge against the vagaries and risks refers to fluctuations in the prices of the underlying assets. The determination of the price of these contracts is of great importance for investors.We are interested in problems of options pricing, actually the European and Quanto options on a financial asset. The price of that asset is modeled by a multi-dimentional jump diffusion with stochastic volatility. Otherwise, the first model considers the volatility as a continuous process and the second model considers it as a jump process. Finally in the 3rd model, the underlying asset is without jump and volatility follows a model CEV without jump. This model allow better to take into account some phenomena observed in the markets. We develop numerical methods that determine the values of prices for these options. We first write the model as an integro-differential stochastic equations system "EIDS", of which we study existence and unicity of solutions. Then we relate the resolution of PIDE to the computation of the option value.
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Veteran options trader Dan Passarelli explains a new methodology for option trading and valuation. With an introduction to option basics as well as chapters on all types of spreads, put-call parity and synthetic options, trading volatility and studying volatility charts, and advanced option trading, Trading Option Greeks holds pertinent new information on how more accurate pricing can drive profit. Most options traders focus on strategies such as covered calls, vertical spreads, butterflies and condors, and so on. But traders often don't know how to use the «greeks»—the five factors that influence an option's price—to trade more effectively. The «greeks» (Delta, Gamma, Theta, Vega, Rho) are tools to measure minute changes in an option's price based on corresponding changes in: Interest rates Time to expiration Price changes in the underlying security Volatility Dividends Using the greeks can lead to more accurate pricing information that will alert an option trader to mispriced derivatives that can be exploited for profit. In straightforward language and making use of charts and examples, Passarelli explains how to use the greeks to be a better options trader.
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Provides a comprehensive coverage of both the deterministic and stochastic models of life contingencies, risk theory, credibility theory, multi-state models, and an introduction to modern mathematical ﬁnance. New edition restructures the material to ﬁt into modern computational methods and provides several spreadsheet examples throughout. Covers the syllabus for the Institute of Actuaries subject CT5, Contingencies Includes new chapters covering stochastic investments returns, universal life insurance. Elements of option pricing and the Black-Scholes formula will be introduced.
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The Volatility Smile The Black-Scholes-Merton option model was the greatest innovation of 20th century finance, and remains the most widely applied theory in all of finance. Despite this success, the model is fundamentally at odds with the observed behavior of option markets: a graph of implied volatilities against strike will typically display a curve or skew, which practitioners refer to as the smile, and which the model cannot explain. Option valuation is not a solved problem, and the past forty years have witnessed an abundance of new models that try to reconcile theory with markets. The Volatility Smile presents a unified treatment of the Black-Scholes-Merton model and the more advanced models that have replaced it. It is also a book about the principles of financial valuation and how to apply them. Celebrated author and quant Emanuel Derman and Michael B. Miller explain not just the mathematics but the ideas behind the models. By examining the foundations, the implementation, and the pros and cons of various models, and by carefully exploring their derivations and their assumptions, readers will learn not only how to handle the volatility smile but how to evaluate and build their own financial models. Topics covered include: The principles of valuation Static and dynamic replication The Black-Scholes-Merton model Hedging strategies Transaction costs The behavior of the volatility smile Implied distributions Local volatility models Stochastic volatility models Jump-diffusion models The first half of the book, Chapters 1 through 13, can serve as a standalone textbook for a course on option valuation and the Black-Scholes-Merton model, presenting the principles of financial modeling, several derivations of the model, and a detailed discussion of how it is used in practice. The second half focuses on the behavior of the volatility smile, and, in conjunction with the first half, can be used for as the basis for a more advanced course.
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Volatility is one of the biggest topics in finance today. It is the most important measure of risk and plays a crucial role in the valuation of derivatives. Volatility estimations are therefore essential in most financial decisions. However, it has been proven extremely difficult to model and forecast the volatility one witnesses in time series. This book compares two volatility models, their properties and their performances. The models compared are the GARCH model and the Markov Switching Multifractal model, two models that rely on completely different assumptions. This book assesses how both models perform in replicating financial time series. The model parameters are estimated on historical returns and option prices. The results are used to produce volatility forecasts which in their turn are evaluated in a Value at Risk setup. The analysis done shows some unexpected conclusions and promising leads for further research. This book provides a step by step manual on how to estimate various volatility models and how resulting estimates can be used for derivative pricing. This is extremely valuable for practitioners and others interested in modeling volatility in financial markets.
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An A to Z options trading guide for the new millennium and the new economy Written by professional trader and quantitative analyst Euan Sinclair, Option Trading is a comprehensive guide to this discipline covering everything from historical background, contract types, and market structure to volatility measurement, forecasting, and hedging techniques. This comprehensive guide presents the detail and practical information that professional option traders need, whether they're using options to hedge, manage money, arbitrage, or engage in structured finance deals. It contains information essential to anyone in this field, including option pricing and price forecasting, the Greeks, implied volatility, volatility measurement and forecasting, and specific option strategies. Explains how to break down a typical position, and repair positions Other titles by Sinclair: Volatility Trading Addresses the various concerns of the professional options trader Option trading will continue to be an important part of the financial landscape. This book will show you how to make the most of these profitable products, no matter what the market does.
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An introduction to the mathematical theory and financial models developed and used on Wall Street Providing both a theoretical and practical approach to the underlying mathematical theory behind financial models, Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance: A Problem-Oriented Approach presents important concepts and results in measure theory, probability theory, stochastic processes, and stochastic calculus. Measure theory is indispensable to the rigorous development of probability theory and is also necessary to properly address martingale measures, the change of numeraire theory, and LIBOR market models. In addition, probability theory is presented to facilitate the development of stochastic processes, including martingales and Brownian motions, while stochastic processes and stochastic calculus are discussed to model asset prices and develop derivative pricing models. The authors promote a problem-solving approach when applying mathematics in real-world situations, and readers are encouraged to address theorems and problems with mathematical rigor. In addition, Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance features: A comprehensive list of concepts and theorems from measure theory, probability theory, stochastic processes, and stochastic calculus Over 500 problems with hints and select solutions to reinforce basic concepts and important theorems Classic derivative pricing models in mathematical finance that have been developed and published since the seminal work of Black and Scholes Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance: A Problem-Oriented Approach is an ideal textbook for introductory quantitative courses in business, economics, and mathematical finance at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also a useful reference for readers who need to build their mathematical skills in order to better understand the mathematical theory of derivative pricing models.
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This book examines the long memory characteristics in the volatility of the Indian stock market, the Indian exchange rates and the Indian banking sector. This book also reviews the chain of approaches to estimate the long memory parameter. The long memory characteristics of the financial time series are widely studied and have implications for various economics and finance theories. The most important financial implication is related to the violation of the weak-form of market efficiency which encourages the traders, investors and portfolio managers to develop models for making predictions and to construct and implement speculative trading and investment strategies. In an efficient market, the price of an asset should follow a random walk process in which the price change is unaffected by ist lagged price changes and has no memory.
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Quantitative Finance is expanding rapidly. One of the aspects of the recent financial crisis is that, given the complexity of financial products, the demand for people with high numeracy skills is likely to grow and this means more recognition will be given to Quantitative Finance in existing and new course structures worldwide. Evidence has suggested that many holders of complex financial securities before the financial crisis did not have in-house experts or rely on a third-party in order to assess the risk exposure of their investments. Therefore, this experience shows the need for better understanding of risk associate with complex financial securities in the future. The Mathematics of Derivative Securities with Applications in MATLAB provides readers with an introduction to probability theory, stochastic calculus and stochastic processes, followed by discussion on the application of that knowledge to solve complex financial problems such as pricing and hedging exotic options, pricing American derivatives, pricing and hedging under stochastic volatility and an introduction to interest rates modelling. The book begins with an overview of MATLAB and the various components that will be used alongside it throughout the textbook. Following this, the first part of the book is an in depth introduction to Probability theory, Stochastic Processes and Ito Calculus and Ito Integral. This is essential to fully understand some of the mathematical concepts used in the following part of the book. The second part focuses on financial engineering and guides the reader through the fundamental theorem of asset pricing using the Black and Scholes Economy and Formula, Options Pricing through European and American style options, summaries of Exotic Options, Stochastic Volatility Models and Interest rate Modelling. Topics covered in this part are explained using MATLAB codes showing how the theoretical models are used practically. Authored from an academic’s perspective, the book discusses complex analytical issues and intricate financial instruments in a way that it is accessible to postgraduate students with or without a previous background in probability theory and finance. It is written to be the ideal primary reference book or a perfect companion to other related works. The book uses clear and detailed mathematical explanation accompanied by examples involving real case scenarios throughout and provides MATLAB codes for a variety of topics.
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Stochastic Simulation and Applications in Finance with MATLAB Programs explains the fundamentals of Monte Carlo simulation techniques, their use in the numerical resolution of stochastic differential equations and their current applications in finance. Building on an integrated approach, it provides a pedagogical treatment of the need-to-know materials in risk management and financial engineering. The book takes readers through the basic concepts, covering the most recent research and problems in the area, including: the quadratic re-sampling technique, the Least Squared Method, the dynamic programming and Stratified State Aggregation technique to price American options, the extreme value simulation technique to price exotic options and the retrieval of volatility method to estimate Greeks. The authors also present modern term structure of interest rate models and pricing swaptions with the BGM market model, and give a full explanation of corporate securities valuation and credit risk based on the structural approach of Merton. Case studies on financial guarantees illustrate how to implement the simulation techniques in pricing and hedging. NOTE TO READER: The CD has been converted to URL. Go to the following website www.wiley.com/go/huyhnstochastic which provides MATLAB programs for the practical examples and case studies, which will give the reader confidence in using and adapting specific ways to solve problems involving stochastic processes in finance.
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Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Mathematics - Stochastics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, language: English, abstract: This thesis analyzes various types of the corridor option in consideration of its time zero price in a complete market. The results will be evaluated by changing different parameters like volatility and corridor range and by comparing the three variations of the corridor option with each other. This thesis will present two approaches of pricing. The first one determines the prices numerically using Monte-Carlo simulation, while the second approach describes a model to compute the prices analytically. Whereas the first method will provide a complete model and prices for all three option types, the second model gives only results for the basic corridor option, but describes a possible approach to determine prices for all corridor options.
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A top options trader details a practical approach for pricing and trading options in any market condition The options market is always changing, and in order to keep up with it you need the greeks—delta, gamma, theta, vega, and rho—which are the best techniques for valuing options and executing trades regardless of market conditions. In the Second Edition of Trading Options Greeks, veteran options trader Dan Pasarelli puts these tools in perspective by offering fresh insights on option trading and valuation. An essential guide for both professional and aspiring traders, this book explains the greeks in a straightforward and accessible style. It skillfully shows how they can be used to facilitate trading strategies that seek to profit from volatility, time decay, or changes in interest rates. Along the way, it makes use of new charts and examples, and discusses how the proper application of the greeks can lead to more accurate pricing and trading as well as alert you to a range of other opportunities. Completely updated with new material Information on spreads, put-call parity and synthetic options, trading volatility, and advanced option trading is also included Explores how to exploit the dynamics of option pricing to improve your trading Having a comprehensive understanding of the greeks is essential to long-term options trading success. Trading Options Greeks, Second Edition shows you how to use the greeks to find better trades, effectively manage them, and ultimately, become more profitable.
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Lots of effort has been expended in improving volatility models since better forecasts translate in to better pricing of assets and better risk management. However the question as to what model should be used to calculate volatility, there is no unique answer as different volatility models were proposed in the literature and were being used by practitioners. To answer which VaR model adequately capture the market risk, three VaR models are tested on stock indices from Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia and Macedonia. The tested VaR models are: simple moving average with rolling windows of 50, 74 (proposed by Risk Metrics) and 100 days, EWMA using 0,9, 0,94 (proposed by Risk Metrics) and 0,96 as smoothing constant λ and different windows of 50, 74 and 100 days, and GARCH(1,1). VaR models are calculated for a one-day holding period at 95% and 99% coverage of the market risk. These competing models are evaluated on the basis of BLF error statistics. The challenge of this work is to come up with the best and easily implementable approach suitable to Former Yugoslavian stock exchange markets, especially for Macedonian and apply time series models for calculating Value at Risk.
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Stochastic Simulation and Applications in Finance with MATLAB Programs explains the fundamentals of Monte Carlo simulation techniques, their use in the numerical resolution of stochastic differential equations and their current applications in finance. Building on an integrated approach, it provides a pedagogical treatment of the need-to-know materials in risk management and financial engineering. The book takes readers through the basic concepts, covering the most recent research and problems in the area, including: the quadratic re-sampling technique, the Least Squared Method, the dynamic programming and Stratified State Aggregation technique to price American options, the extreme value simulation technique to price exotic options and the retrieval of volatility method to estimate Greeks.The authors also present modern term structure of interest rate models and pricing swaptions with the BGM market model, and give a full explanation of corporate securities valuation and credit risk based on the structural approach of Merton. Case studies on financial guarantees illustrate how to implement the simulation techniques in pricing and hedging.
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This book is concerned with the theory of stochastic processes and the theoretical aspects of statistics for stochastic processes. It combines classic topics such as construction of stochastic processes, associated filtrations, processes with independent increments, Gaussian processes, martingales, Markov properties, continuity and related properties of trajectories with contemporary subjects: integration with respect to Gaussian processes, Itȏ integration, stochastic analysis, stochastic differential equations, fractional Brownian motion and parameter estimation in diffusion models.
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The stochastic volatility of daily foreign exchange (FX) derivatives poses a number of risks for the international banking community. Settlement risk, liquidity risk and capital adequacy are just a few immediate concerns that arise from such volatility. This book examines the impact of close-out netting on minimising the stochastic volatility of inter- bank FX derivatives. The problem with close-out netting is that although it is a simple formula of taking the differences between two banks at one point in time, it is the stochastic and volatile nature of FX rates that makes measuring the full impact of netting difficult. Through Monte Carlo simulation of the resulting fitted GARCH models, we generate the distributions -with and without close- out netting. The findings of this book are interesting, showing that close-out netting is far more than just a simple mathematical process. Netting surely does reduce each bank’s exposure to FX volatility, however, its multivariate nature reveals some important results for banking risk research and indeed many financial analysts.
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Bayesian analysis of complex models based on stochastic processes has in recent years become a growing area. This book provides a unified treatment of Bayesian analysis of models based on stochastic processes, covering the main classes of stochastic processing including modeling, computational, inference, forecasting, decision making and important applied models. Key features: Explores Bayesian analysis of models based on stochastic processes, providing a unified treatment. Provides a thorough introduction for research students. Computational tools to deal with complex problems are illustrated along with real life case studies Looks at inference, prediction and decision making. Researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students interested in stochastic processes in fields such as statistics, operations research (OR), engineering, finance, economics, computer science and Bayesian analysis will benefit from reading this book. With numerous applications included, practitioners of OR, stochastic modelling and applied statistics will also find this book useful.
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This book deals with deriving pricing rules for Real Options which are based on exponential mean-reverting asset. In particular, we are interested in modelling the possibility of selling a poorly performing asset for a predetermined price L. Firstly, the option is considered to be homogenous in time, i.e. its value is only a function of the asset price, then we comprise the time-dependency and finally, we extend it to the case of stochastic interest rate modeled again by the exponential mean-reverting process. The book assumes some basic knowledge of stochastic analysis, numerical methods and financial mathematics. This book was written as author's MSc thesis at FNSPE at CTU in Prague.
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An essential guide to real-world derivatives trading FX Derivatives Trader School is the definitive guide to the technical and practical knowledge required for successful foreign exchange derivatives trading. Accessible in style and comprehensive in coverage, the book guides the reader through both basic and advanced derivative pricing and risk management topics. The basics of financial markets and trading are covered, plus practical derivatives mathematics is introduced with reference to real-world trading and risk management. Derivative contracts are covered in detail from a trader's perspective using risk profiles and pricing under different derivative models. Analysis is approached generically to enable new products to be understood by breaking the risk into fundamental building blocks. To assist with learning, the book also contains Excel practicals which will deepen understanding and help build useful skills. The book covers of a wide variety of topics, including: Derivative exposures within risk management Volatility surface construction Implied volatility and correlation risk Practical tips for students on trading internships and junior traders Market analysis techniques FX derivatives trading requires mathematical aptitude, risk management skill, and the ability to work quickly and accurately under pressure. There is a tremendous gap between option pricing formulas and the knowledge required to be a successful derivatives trader. FX Derivatives Trader School is unique in bridging that gap.
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Praise for the First Edition “…a nice, self-contained introduction to simulation and computational techniques in finance…” – Mathematical Reviews Simulation Techniques in Financial Risk Management, Second Edition takes a unique approach to the field of simulations by focusing on techniques necessary in the fields of finance and risk management. Thoroughly updated, the new edition expands on several key topics in these areas and presents many of the recent innovations in simulations and risk management, such as advanced option pricing models beyond the Black–Scholes paradigm, interest rate models, MCMC methods including stochastic volatility models simulations, model assets and model-free properties, jump diffusion, and state space modeling. The Second Edition also features: Updates to primary software used throughout the book, Microsoft Office® Excel® VBA New topical coverage on multiple assets, model-free properties, and related models More than 300 exercises at the end of each chapter, with select answers in the appendix, to help readers apply new concepts and test their understanding Extensive use of examples to illustrate how to use simulation techniques in risk management Practical case studies, such as the pricing of exotic options; simulations of Greeks in hedging; and the use of Bayesian ideas to assess the impact of jumps, so readers can reproduce the results of the studies A related website with additional solutions to problems within the book as well as Excel VBA and S-Plus computer code for many of the examples within the book Simulation Techniques in Financial Risk Management, Second Edition is an invaluable resource for risk managers in the financial and actuarial industries as well as a useful reference for readers interested in learning how to better gauge risk and make more informed decisions. The book is also ideal for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in simulation and risk management.
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In Volatility Trading, Sinclair offers you a quantitative model for measuring volatility in order to gain an edge in your everyday option trading endeavors. With an accessible, straightforward approach. He guides traders through the basics of option pricing, volatility measurement, hedging, money management, and trade evaluation. In addition, Sinclair explains the often-overlooked psychological aspects of trading, revealing both how behavioral psychology can create market conditions traders can take advantage of-and how it can lead them astray. Psychological biases, he asserts, are probably the drivers behind most sources of edge available to a volatility trader. Your goal, Sinclair explains, must be clearly defined and easily expressed-if you cannot explain it in one sentence, you probably aren't completely clear about what it is. The same applies to your statistical edge. If you do not know exactly what your edge is, you shouldn't trade. He shows how, in addition to the numerical evaluation of a potential trade, you should be able to identify and evaluate the reason why implied volatility is priced where it is, that is, why an edge exists. This means it is also necessary to be on top of recent news stories, sector trends, and behavioral psychology. Finally, Sinclair underscores why trades need to be sized correctly, which means that each trade is evaluated according to its projected return and risk in the overall context of your goals. As the author concludes, while we also need to pay attention to seemingly mundane things like having good execution software, a comfortable office, and getting enough sleep, it is knowledge that is the ultimate source of edge. So, all else being equal, the trader with the greater knowledge will be the more successful. This book, and its companion CD-ROM, will provide that knowledge. The CD-ROM includes spreadsheets designed to help you forecast volatility and evaluate trades together with simulation engines.
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Professorial Dissertation from the year 2014 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: A, , language: English, abstract: This book examines the long memory characteristics in the volatility of the Indian stock market, the Indian exchange rates and the Indian banking sector. This book also reviews the chain of approaches to estimate the long memory parameter. The long memory characteristics of the financial time series are widely studied and have implications for various economics and finance theories. The most important financial implication is related to the violation of the weak-form of market efficiency which encourages the traders, investors and portfolio managers to develop models for making predictions and to construct and implement speculative trading and investment strategies. In an efficient market, the price of an asset should follow a random walk process in which the price change is unaffected by its lagged price changes and has no memory.
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This is an introduction to stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations written in an understandable way for a wide audience, from students of mathematics to practitioners in biology, chemistry, physics, and finances. The presentation is based on the naïve stochastic integration, rather than on abstract theories of measure and stochastic processes. The proofs are rather simple for practitioners and, at the same time, rather rigorous for mathematicians. Detailed application examples in natural sciences and finance are presented. Much attention is paid to simulation diffusion processes. The topics covered include Brownian motion; motivation of stochastic models with Brownian motion; Itô and Stratonovich stochastic integrals, Itô’s formula; stochastic differential equations (SDEs); solutions of SDEs as Markov processes; application examples in physical sciences and finance; simulation of solutions of SDEs (strong and weak approximations). Exercises with hints and/or solutions are also provided.
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A new, more accurate take on the classical approach to volatility evaluation Inside Volatility Filtering presents a new approach to volatility estimation, using financial econometrics based on a more accurate estimation of the hidden state. Based on the idea of «filtering», this book lays out a two-step framework involving a Chapman-Kolmogorov prior distribution followed by Bayesian posterior distribution to develop a robust estimation based on all available information. This new second edition includes guidance toward basing estimations on historic option prices instead of stocks, as well as Wiener Chaos Expansions and other spectral approaches. The author's statistical trading strategy has been expanded with more in-depth discussion, and the companion website offers new topical insight, additional models, and extra charts that delve into the profitability of applied model calibration. You'll find a more precise approach to the classical time series and financial econometrics evaluation, with expert advice on turning data into profit. Financial markets do not always behave according to a normal bell curve. Skewness creates uncertainty and surprises, and tarnishes trading performance, but it's not going away. This book shows traders how to work with skewness: how to predict it, estimate its impact, and determine whether the data is presenting a warning to stay away or an opportunity for profit. Base volatility estimations on more accurate data Integrate past observation with Bayesian probability Exploit posterior distribution of the hidden state for optimal estimation Boost trade profitability by utilizing «skewness» opportunities Wall Street is constantly searching for volatility assessment methods that will make their models more accurate, but precise handling of skewness is the key to true accuracy. Inside Volatility Filtering shows you a better way to approach non-normal distributions for more accurate volatility estimation.
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This book presents basic stochastic processes, stochastic calculus including Lévy processes on one hand, and Markov and Semi Markov models on the other. From the financial point of view, essential concepts such as the Black and Scholes model, VaR indicators, actuarial evaluation, market values, fair pricing play a central role and will be presented. The authors also present basic concepts so that this series is relatively self-contained for the main audience formed by actuaries and particularly with ERM (enterprise risk management) certificates, insurance risk managers, students in Master in mathematics or economics and people involved in Solvency II for insurance companies and in Basel II and III for banks.
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Strategies, tools, and solutions for minimizing risk and volatility in option trading An intermediate level trading book, The Option Trader Handbook, Second Edition provides serious traders with strategies for managing and adjusting their market positions. This Second Edition features new material on implied volatility; Delta and Theta, and how these measures can be used to make better trading decisions. The book presents the art of making trade adjustments in a logical sequence, starting with long and short stock positions; moving on to basic put and call positions; and finally discussing option spreads and combinations. Covers different types of underlying positions and discusses all the possible adjustments that can be made to that position Offers important insights into more complex option spreads and combinations A timely book for today's volatile markets Intended for both stock and option traders, this book will help you improve your overall trading skills and performance.
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The price volatility of agricultural crop products has increased in the last decade. The aim of this work is to identify and analyze the determinant factors of average monthly price volatility of cereals (wheat and barley) and pulses (bean and pea) in Amhara National Regional State over the period of December 2001 to June 2012 GC using GARCH family models. Among such models entertained in this study, ARMA(1,0)-EGARCH(3,3) with GED for wheat, ARMA(4,4)-EGARCH(2,3) with GED for bean and ARMA(1,0)-EGARCH(1,2) with student-t for pea were chosen to be the best fit models. The monthly price return series of barley exhibited no ARCH effects, and thus, was not modeled using (G)ARCH family models.
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An interdisciplinary approach to understanding queueing and graphical networks In today's era of interdisciplinary studies and research activities, network models are becoming increasingly important in various areas where they have not regularly been used. Combining techniques from stochastic processes and graph theory to analyze the behavior of networks, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks provides an interdisciplinary approach by including practical applications of these stochastic networks in various fields of study, from engineering and operations management to communications and the physical sciences. The author uniquely unites different types of stochastic, queueing, and graphical networks that are typically studied independently of each other. With balanced coverage, the book is organized into three succinct parts: Part I introduces basic concepts in probability and stochastic processes, with coverage on counting, Poisson, renewal, and Markov processes Part II addresses basic queueing theory, with a focus on Markovian queueing systems and also explores advanced queueing theory, queueing networks, and approximations of queueing networks Part III focuses on graphical models, presenting an introduction to graph theory along with Bayesian, Boolean, and random networks The author presents the material in a self-contained style that helps readers apply the presented methods and techniques to science and engineering applications. Numerous practical examples are also provided throughout, including all related mathematical details. Featuring basic results without heavy emphasis on proving theorems, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks is a suitable book for courses on probability and stochastic networks, stochastic network calculus, and stochastic network optimization at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book also serves as a reference for researchers and network professionals who would like to learn more about the general principles of stochastic networks.
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A unique, in-depth guide to options pricing and valuing their greeks, along with a four dimensional approach towards the impact of changing market circumstances on options How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks is the only book of its kind, showing you how to value options and the greeks according to the Black Scholes model but also how to do this without consulting a model. You'll build a solid understanding of options and hedging strategies as you explore the concepts of probability, volatility, and put call parity, then move into more advanced topics in combination with a four-dimensional approach of the change of the P&L of an option portfolio in relation to strike, underlying, volatility, and time to maturity. This informative guide fully explains the distribution of first and second order Greeks along the whole range wherein an option has optionality, and delves into trading strategies, including spreads, straddles, strangles, butterflies, kurtosis, vega-convexity , and more. Charts and tables illustrate how specific positions in a Greek evolve in relation to its parameters, and digital ancillaries allow you to see 3D representations using your own parameters and volumes. The Black and Scholes model is the most widely used option model, appreciated for its simplicity and ability to generate a fair value for options pricing in all kinds of markets. This book shows you the ins and outs of the model, giving you the practical understanding you need for setting up and managing an option strategy. • Understand the Greeks, and how they make or break a strategy • See how the Greeks change with time, volatility, and underlying • Explore various trading strategies • Implement options positions, and more Representations of option payoffs are too often based on a simple two-dimensional approach consisting of P&L versus underlying at expiry. This is misleading, as the Greeks can make a world of difference over the lifetime of a strategy. How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks is a comprehensive, in-depth guide to a thorough and more effective understanding of options, their Greeks, and (hedging) option strategies.
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Stochastic finance and financial engineering have been rapidly expanding fields of science over the past four decades, mainly due to the success of sophisticated quantitative methodologies in helping professionals manage financial risks. In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous acceleration in research efforts aimed at better comprehending, modeling and hedging this kind of risk. These two volumes aim to provide a foundation course on applied stochastic finance. They are designed for three groups of readers: firstly, students of various backgrounds seeking a core knowledge on the subject of stochastic finance; secondly financial analysts and practitioners in the investment, banking and insurance industries; and finally other professionals who are interested in learning advanced mathematical and stochastic methods, which are basic knowledge in many areas, through finance. Volume 1 starts with the introduction of the basic financial instruments and the fundamental principles of financial modeling and arbitrage valuation of derivatives. Next, we use the discrete-time binomial model to introduce all relevant concepts. The mathematical simplicity of the binomial model also provides us with the opportunity to introduce and discuss in depth concepts such as conditional expectations and martingales in discrete time. However, we do not expand beyond the needs of the stochastic finance framework. Numerous examples, each highlighted and isolated from the text for easy reference and identification, are included. The book concludes with the use of the binomial model to introduce interest rate models and the use of the Markov chain model to introduce credit risk. This volume is designed in such a way that, among other uses, makes it useful as an undergraduate course.
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Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (ARCH) processes are used in finance to model asset price volatility over time. This book introduces both the theory and applications of ARCH models and provides the basic theoretical and empirical background, before proceeding to more advanced issues and applications. The Authors provide coverage of the recent developments in ARCH modelling which can be implemented using econometric software, model construction, fitting and forecasting and model evaluation and selection. Key Features: Presents a comprehensive overview of both the theory and the practical applications of ARCH, an increasingly popular financial modelling technique. Assumes no prior knowledge of ARCH models; the basics such as model construction are introduced, before proceeding to more complex applications such as value-at-risk, option pricing and model evaluation. Uses empirical examples to demonstrate how the recent developments in ARCH can be implemented. Provides step-by-step instructive examples, using econometric software, such as Econometric Views and the [email protected] module for the Ox software package, used in Estimating and Forecasting ARCH Models. Accompanied by a CD-ROM containing links to the software as well as the datasets used in the examples. Aimed at readers wishing to gain an aptitude in the applications of financial econometric modelling with a focus on practical implementation, via applications to real data and via examples worked with econometrics packages.
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A beginner’s guide to stochastic growth modeling The chief advantage of stochastic growth models over deterministic models is that they combine both deterministic and stochastic elements of dynamic behaviors, such as weather, natural disasters, market fluctuations, and epidemics. This makes stochastic modeling a powerful tool in the hands of practitioners in fields for which population growth is a critical determinant of outcomes. However, the background requirements for studying SDEs can be daunting for those who lack the rigorous course of study received by math majors. Designed to be accessible to readers who have had only a few courses in calculus and statistics, this book offers a comprehensive review of the mathematical essentials needed to understand and apply stochastic growth models. In addition, the book describes deterministic and stochastic applications of population growth models including logistic, generalized logistic, Gompertz, negative exponential, and linear. Ideal for students and professionals in an array of fields including economics, population studies, environmental sciences, epidemiology, engineering, finance, and the biological sciences, Stochastic Differential Equations: An Introduction with Applications in Population Dynamics Modeling: • Provides precise definitions of many important terms and concepts and provides many solved example problems • Highlights the interpretation of results and does not rely on a theorem-proof approach • Features comprehensive chapters addressing any background deficiencies readers may have and offers a comprehensive review for those who need a mathematics refresher • Emphasizes solution techniques for SDEs and their practical application to the development of stochastic population models An indispensable resource for students and practitioners with limited exposure to mathematics and statistics, Stochastic Differential Equations: An Introduction with Applications in Population Dynamics Modeling is an excellent fit for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, as well as practitioners who need a gentle introduction to SDEs. Michael J. Panik, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Economics, Barney School of Business and Public Administration at the University of Hartford in Connecticut. He received his PhD in Economics from Boston College and is a member of the American Mathematical Society, The American Statistical Association, and The Econometric Society.
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The essential resource for the successful option trader High Performance Options Trading offers a fresh perspective on trading options from a seasoned options trader programmer/engineer, Leonard Yates. Drawing on twenty-five years of experience as an options trader and software programmer, Yates has written this straightforward guide. First he provides readers with a solid foundation to trading options, including an introduction to basic options terminology, a thorough explanation on how options are traded, and specific trading strategies. Accompanied by the OptionVue Educational website, this hands-on guide to the options market is a thorough and essential resource for any trader looking to increase his or her practical knowledge of options.
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This book presents a major innovation in the interest rate space. It explains a financially motivated extension of the LIBOR Market model which accurately reproduces the prices for plain vanilla hedging instruments (swaptions and caplets) of all strikes and maturities produced by the SABR model. The authors show how to accurately recover the whole of the SABR smile surface using their extension of the LIBOR market model. This is not just a new model, this is a new way of option pricing that takes into account the need to calibrate as accurately as possible to the plain vanilla reference hedging instruments and the need to obtain prices and hedges in reasonable time whilst reproducing a realistic future evolution of the smile surface. It removes the hard choice between accuracy and time because the framework that the authors provide reproduces today's market prices of plain vanilla options almost exactly and simultaneously gives a reasonable future evolution for the smile surface. The authors take the SABR model as the starting point for their extension of the LMM because it is a good model for European options. The problem, however with SABR is that it treats each European option in isolation and the processes for the various underlyings (forward and swap rates) do not talk to each other so it isn't obvious how to relate these processes into the dynamics of the whole yield curve. With this new model, the authors bring the dynamics of the various forward rates and stochastic volatilities under a single umbrella. To ensure the absence of arbitrage they derive drift adjustments to be applied to both the forward rates and their volatilities. When this is completed, complex derivatives that depend on the joint realisation of all relevant forward rates can now be priced. Contents THE THEORETICAL SET-UP The Libor Market model The SABR Model The LMM-SABR Model IMPLEMENTATION AND CALIBRATION Calibrating the LMM-SABR model to Market Caplet prices Calibrating the LMM/SABR model to Market Swaption Prices Calibrating the Correlation Structure EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE The Empirical problem Estimating the volatility of the forward rates Estimating the correlation structure Estimating the volatility of the volatility HEDGING Hedging the Volatility Structure Hedging the Correlation Structure Hedging in conditions of market stress
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Get a handle on option spreads to hike profit and squash loss The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations is the definitive educational resource and reference guide for using option spreads and other common sense option strategies. This useful guide shows readers how to select the right strategy for their market outlook and risk/reward comfort level by describing the inner workings of each strategy and how they are affected by underlying market movements, implied volatility, and time decay. Even more importantly, readers will understand where each strategy performs well, and the market conditions where each should be avoided. Once the proper strategy is selected, readers will learn how to identify the best options to use based on «moneyness» and time to expiration. The companion website features tools including an option pricing tool and implied volatility calculator to help all traders implement these concepts effectively. There are many different types of spreads, and while less risky than other option strategies in general, they are more complex, with more variables to monitor. This guide serves as a handbook for the trader wanting to exploit options to the greatest possible benefit. Generate monthly income by selling covered strangles Use call spreads to recover from a losing stock position Protect an existing stock position using put diagonals Discover the best strategies for directional market plays Option spreads are a great tool for traders who would rather be an option seller but who need to limit their risk. The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations identifies those strategies that benefit from option erosion but that limit risk. If managed properly, spreads can provide both novice and experienced investors with the potential for a large return while limiting risk. Electronic trading platforms and reduced brokerage commissions have increased option spread trading, which should occupy a spot in every savvy investor's toolkit. Comprehensive and authoritative, The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations provides a valuable manual and lasting reference.
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“This book will be a valuable resource for psychologists and educators who work with children or adolescents who are having difficulties with memory and learning. Translating theory and research into practice is a talent that Dr. Dehn possesses and we will benefit from his professional skills.” – From the Foreword by Daniel C. Miller, PhD, ABPP, ABSNP, NCSP An indispensable guide that examines the effect of long-term memory functions on children's learning Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction is the first book of its kind for psychologists, school psychologists, and special education teachers who need an overview of long-term memory as it relates to learning and education. It presents the best practices for assessing long-term memory functions, as well as selecting and using evidence-based instructional practices with memory-impaired students. This useful and timely guide bridges theory and practice to provide professional guidance with coverage of: Risk factors that can lead to long-term memory impairments How long-term memory relates to other types of memory The subcomponents and processes of long-term memory and how they relate to academic achievement What is known about the neuroanatomy of how memories are formed The developmental trajectory of memory and learning Common types of memory dysfunction Memory assessment strategies, interventions for memory problems, and instructional practices that support memory Author Milton Dehn draws on his extensive experience as a trainer and workshop presenter, school psychologist, and educator to present both the theory and research on long-term memory in children and adolescents in this book. Specific step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enable professionals to identify how memory can be assessed as well as the interventions that can be linked to the results of the assessment.
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This book develops the stochastic geometry framework for image analysis purpose. Two main frameworks are described: marked point process and random closed sets models. We derive the main issues for defining an appropriate model. The algorithms for sampling and optimizing the models as well as for estimating parameters are reviewed. Numerous applications, covering remote sensing images, biological and medical imaging, are detailed. This book provides all the necessary tools for developing an image analysis application based on modern stochastic modeling.
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“This book will be a valuable resource for psychologists and educators who work with children or adolescents who are having difficulties with memory and learning. Translating theory and research into practice is a talent that Dr. Dehn possesses and we will benefit from his professional skills.” – From the Foreword by Daniel C. Miller, PhD, ABPP, ABSNP, NCSP An indispensable guide that examines the effect of long-term memory functions on children's learning Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Intervention, and Effective Instruction is the first book of its kind for psychologists, school psychologists, and special education teachers who need an overview of long-term memory as it relates to learning and education. It presents the best practices for assessing long-term memory functions, as well as selecting and using evidence-based instructional practices with memory-impaired students. This useful and timely guide bridges theory and practice to provide professional guidance with coverage of: Risk factors that can lead to long-term memory impairments How long-term memory relates to other types of memory The subcomponents and processes of long-term memory and how they relate to academic achievement What is known about the neuroanatomy of how memories are formed The developmental trajectory of memory and learning Common types of memory dysfunction Memory assessment strategies, interventions for memory problems, and instructional practices that support memory Author Milton Dehn draws on his extensive experience as a trainer and workshop presenter, school psychologist, and educator to present both the theory and research on long-term memory in children and adolescents in this book. Specific step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enable professionals to identify how memory can be assessed as well as the interventions that can be linked to the results of the assessment.
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Praise for The Volatility Surface «I'm thrilled by the appearance of Jim Gatheral's new book The Volatility Surface. The literature on stochastic volatility is vast, but difficult to penetrate and use. Gatheral's book, by contrast, is accessible and practical. It successfully charts a middle ground between specific examples and general models–achieving remarkable clarity without giving up sophistication, depth, or breadth.» –Robert V. Kohn, Professor of Mathematics and Chair, Mathematical Finance Committee, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University «Concise yet comprehensive, equally attentive to both theory and phenomena, this book provides an unsurpassed account of the peculiarities of the implied volatility surface, its consequences for pricing and hedging, and the theories that struggle to explain it.» –Emanuel Derman, author of My Life as a Quant «Jim Gatheral is the wiliest practitioner in the business. This very fine book is an outgrowth of the lecture notes prepared for one of the most popular classes at NYU's esteemed Courant Institute. The topics covered are at the forefront of research in mathematical finance and the author's treatment of them is simply the best available in this form.» –Peter Carr, PhD, head of Quantitative Financial Research, Bloomberg LP Director of the Masters Program in Mathematical Finance, New York University «Jim Gatheral is an acknowledged master of advanced modeling for derivatives. In The Volatility Surface he reveals the secrets of dealing with the most important but most elusive of financial quantities, volatility.» –Paul Wilmott, author and mathematician «As a teacher in the field of mathematical finance, I welcome Jim Gatheral's book as a significant development. Written by a Wall Street practitioner with extensive market and teaching experience, The Volatility Surface gives students access to a level of knowledge on derivatives which was not previously available. I strongly recommend it.» –Marco Avellaneda, Director, Division of Mathematical Finance Courant Institute, New York University «Jim Gatheral could not have written a better book.» –Bruno Dupire, winner of the 2006 Wilmott Cutting Edge Research Award Quantitative Research, Bloomberg LP
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An introduction to stochastic processes through the use of R Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R is an accessible and well-balanced presentation of the theory of stochastic processes, with an emphasis on real-world applications of probability theory in the natural and social sciences. The use of simulation, by means of the popular statistical software R, makes theoretical results come alive with practical, hands-on demonstrations. Written by a highly-qualified expert in the field, the author presents numerous examples from a wide array of disciplines, which are used to illustrate concepts and highlight computational and theoretical results. Developing readers’ problem-solving skills and mathematical maturity, Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R features: More than 200 examples and 600 end-of-chapter exercises A tutorial for getting started with R, and appendices that contain review material in probability and matrix algebra Discussions of many timely and stimulating topics including Markov chain Monte Carlo, random walk on graphs, card shuffling, Black–Scholes options pricing, applications in biology and genetics, cryptography, martingales, and stochastic calculus Introductions to mathematics as needed in order to suit readers at many mathematical levels A companion web site that includes relevant data files as well as all R code and scripts used throughout the book Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R is an ideal textbook for an introductory course in stochastic processes. The book is aimed at undergraduate and beginning graduate-level students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. The book is also an excellent reference for applied mathematicians and statisticians who are interested in a review of the topic.
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Stochastic replicator dynamics pertains to a population of players (individuals, businesses, animals, bacteria, etc.), each programmed to use a single strategy (or type of behavior). The dynamics aspect is related to the change in proportions of players who are applying the given strategies. This work examines the stochastic replicator dynamics driven by white Gaussian noise (WGN) in the Stratonovich form. This approach provides more natural results concerning stochastic stability, instability and extinction of pure strategies of stochastic replicator dynamics models. It is demonstrated that the asymptotic behavior of the system with two pure strategies depends only on the pay-off matrix and does not depend on the intensity of the random perturbations. Sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, as well as for strong instability, of the stochastic replicator dynamics with n pure strategies are derived. Further, the extinction of the strictly dominated pure strategies is proven. It is shown in particular that this extinction takes place independently of the intensity of the WGN.
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This book contains theoretical and application-oriented methods to treat models of dynamical systems involving non-smooth nonlinearities. The theoretical approach that has been retained and underlined in this work is associated with differential inclusions of mainly finite dimensional dynamical systems and the introduction of maximal monotone operators (graphs) in order to describe models of impact or friction. The authors of this book master the mathematical, numerical and modeling tools in a particular way so that they can propose all aspects of the approach, in both a deterministic and stochastic context, in order to describe real stresses exerted on physical systems. Such tools are very powerful for providing reference numerical approximations of the models. Such an approach is still not very popular nevertheless, even though it could be very useful for many models of numerous fields (e.g. mechanics, vibrations, etc.). This book is especially suited for people both in research and industry interested in the modeling and numerical simulation of discrete mechanical systems with friction or impact phenomena occurring in the presence of classical (linear elastic) or non-classical constitutive laws (delay, memory effects, etc.). It aims to close the gap between highly specialized mathematical literature and engineering applications, as well as to also give tools in the framework of non-smooth stochastic differential systems: thus, applications involving stochastic excitations (earthquakes, road surfaces, wind models etc.) are considered. Contents 1. Some Simple Examples. 2. Theoretical Deterministic Context. 3. Stochastic Theoretical Context. 4. Riemannian Theoretical Context. 5. Systems with Friction. 6. Impact Systems. 7. Applications–Extensions. About the Authors Jérôme Bastien is Assistant Professor at the University Lyon 1 (Centre de recherche et d'Innovation sur le sport) in France. Frédéric Bernardin is a Research Engineer at Département Laboratoire de Clermont-Ferrand (DLCF), Centre d'Etudes Techniques de l'Equipement (CETE), Lyon, France. Claude-Henri Lamarque is Head of Laboratoire Géomatériaux et Génie Civil (LGCB) and Professor at Ecole des Travaux Publics de l'Etat (ENTPE), Vaulx-en-Velin, France.
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Reflecting the fast pace and ever-evolving nature of the financial industry, the Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance details how high-frequency analysis presents new systematic approaches to implementing quantitative activities with high-frequency financial data. Introducing new and established mathematical foundations necessary to analyze realistic market models and scenarios, the handbook begins with a presentation of the dynamics and complexity of futures and derivatives markets as well as a portfolio optimization problem using quantum computers. Subsequently, the handbook addresses estimating complex model parameters using high-frequency data. Finally, the handbook focuses on the links between models used in financial markets and models used in other research areas such as geophysics, fossil records, and earthquake studies. The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance also features: • Contributions by well-known experts within the academic, industrial, and regulatory fields • A well-structured outline on the various data analysis methodologies used to identify new trading opportunities • Newly emerging quantitative tools that address growing concerns relating to high-frequency data such as stochastic volatility and volatility tracking; stochastic jump processes for limit-order books and broader market indicators; and options markets • Practical applications using real-world data to help readers better understand the presented material The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance is an excellent reference for professionals in the fields of business, applied statistics, econometrics, and financial engineering. The handbook is also a good supplement for graduate and MBA-level courses on quantitative finance, volatility, and financial econometrics. Ionut Florescu, PhD, is Research Associate Professor in Financial Engineering and Director of the Hanlon Financial Systems Laboratory at Stevens Institute of Technology. His research interests include stochastic volatility, stochastic partial differential equations, Monte Carlo Methods, and numerical methods for stochastic processes. Dr. Florescu is the author of Probability and Stochastic Processes, the coauthor of Handbook of Probability, and the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, all published by Wiley. Maria C. Mariani, PhD, is Shigeko K. Chan Distinguished Professor in Mathematical Sciences and Chair of the Department of Mathematical Sciences at The University of Texas at El Paso. Her research interests include mathematical finance, applied mathematics, geophysics, nonlinear and stochastic partial differential equations and numerical methods. Dr. Mariani is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley. H. Eugene Stanley, PhD, is William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor at Boston University. Stanley is one of the key founders of the new interdisciplinary field of econophysics, and has an ISI Hirsch index H=128 based on more than 1200 papers. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Frederi G. Viens, PhD, is Professor of Statistics and Mathematics and Director of the Computational Finance Program at Purdue University. He holds more than two dozen local, regional, and national awards and he travels extensively on a world-wide basis to deliver lectures on his research interests, which range from quantitative finance to climate science and agricultural economics. A Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics Statistics, Dr. Viens is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley.
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The petroleum sector is possibly the largest and most dominant economic sector in the globalized economy. However, for reasons explored in this book, although none of the existing economic development models fit this sector in the past and apply even less today, no satisfactory alternative has presented itself. This book highlights the important reasons why current models fail to predict energy pricing with reasonable accuracy, and ventures into environmental and other problems with oil and gas production and associated economic decisions mounting across both developed as well as developing economies.
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The petroleum sector is possibly the largest and most dominant economic sector in the globalized economy. However, for reasons explored in this book, although none of the existing economic development models fit this sector in the past and apply even less today, no satisfactory alternative has presented itself. This book highlights the important reasons why current models fail to predict energy pricing with reasonable accuracy, and ventures into environmental and other problems with oil and gas production and associated economic decisions mounting across both developed as well as developing economies.
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Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: During the last decades, capital markets have transformed rapidly. Derivative securities or more simply derivatives like swaps, futures, and options supplemented the trading of stocks and bonds. These financial products can frequently be seen in the media: Due to derivatives, Procter & Gamble lost $150 million in 1994, Barings Bank lost $1.3 billion in 1995 and Long-Term Capital Management (LTCM) lost $3.5 billion in 1998. Though these figures seem daunting, derivatives can be useful financial instruments. Applications include risk management, speculation, reduced transaction costs, and regulatory arbitrage. Theory and practice of option valuation were revolutionized in 1973, when Fischer Black and Myron Scholes published their celebrated Black Scholes formula in the landmark paper The pricing of options and corporate liabilities. Afterwards, a vast amount of papers on option valuation was published which employ all kinds of stochastic processes. Thereby, the special features of financial return data are tried to be taken into account. Advancing option valuation theory to options with multiple underlyings, lead to the problem that the dependence structure of the underlying securities needs to be considered. Though linear correlation is a widely used dependence measure, it may be inappropriate for multivariate return data. Throughout the last years, dependence modelling through copulas has become common. Copulas are multivariate distributions ...
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In this paper recent techniques for recovering information implied by options market prices and realized returns are applied empirically to measure the risk aversion of investors in the Israeli stock market. We determine nonparametric volatility smile, densities and risk aversion functions from a ten years sample of daily option and stock market prices. Moreover, we construct a time series of the absolute risk aversion, and study its variation over time. We report decreasing and generally positive risk aversion function, which varies substantially over time and is negatively correlated with the ATM implied volatility.
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The only guide focusing entirely on practical approaches to pricing and hedging derivatives One valuable lesson of the financial crisis was that derivatives and risk practitioners don't really understand the products they're dealing with. Written by a practitioner for practitioners, this book delivers the kind of knowledge and skills traders and finance professionals need to fully understand derivatives and price and hedge them effectively. Most derivatives books are written by academics and are long on theory and short on the day-to-day realities of derivatives trading. Of the few practical guides available, very few of those cover pricing and hedging—two critical topics for traders. What matters to practitioners is what happens on the trading floor—information only seasoned practitioners such as authors Marroni and Perdomo can impart. Lays out proven derivatives pricing and hedging strategies and techniques for equities, FX, fixed income and commodities, as well as multi-assets and cross-assets Provides expert guidance on the development of structured products, supplemented with a range of practical examples Packed with real-life examples covering everything from option payout with delta hedging, to Monte Carlo procedures to common structured products payoffs The Companion Website features all of the examples from the book in Excel complete with source code
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In the following study, I am going to present a short survey of the hedge fund industry, its regulation and the existent hedge fund strategies. Statistical arbitrage in particular is explained in further detail, and major performance measurement ratios are presented. In the second part, I am going to introduce a semi-variance model for statistical arbitrage. The model is compared to the standard Garch model, which is often used in daily option trading, derivate pricing and risk management. As investment returns are not equally distributed over time, sources for statistical arbitrage occur. The semi-variance model takes skewness into account and provides higher returns at lower volatility than the Garch model. The concept is aimed to be a synopsis of mean reversion and chart pattern detection. The computer model is generated with respect to Brownian motion and technical analysis and provides significant returns to the investment. While the market efficiency hypothesis states the impossibility of long-term arbitrage opportunities, market anomalies outstand significantly. Connecting both elements creates a profitable trading system. The combination of both approaches delivers a sensible hedge fund concept. The out-of-sample backtest verifies out-performance and implies the need for further research in the area of higher moment CAPM and additional market timing strategies as sources of statistical arbitrage. Reflecting the fast pace and ever-evolving nature of the financial industry, the Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance details how high-frequency analysis presents new systematic approaches to implementing quantitative activities with high-frequency financial data. Introducing new and established mathematical foundations necessary to analyze realistic market models and scenarios, the handbook begins with a presentation of the dynamics and complexity of futures and derivatives markets as well as a portfolio optimization problem using quantum computers. Subsequently, the handbook addresses estimating complex model parameters using high-frequency data. Finally, the handbook focuses on the links between models used in financial markets and models used in other research areas such as geophysics, fossil records, and earthquake studies. The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance also features: • Contributions by well-known experts within the academic, industrial, and regulatory fields • A well-structured outline on the various data analysis methodologies used to identify new trading opportunities • Newly emerging quantitative tools that address growing concerns relating to high-frequency data such as stochastic volatility and volatility tracking; stochastic jump processes for limit-order books and broader market indicators; and options markets • Practical applications using real-world data to help readers better understand the presented material The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance is an excellent reference for professionals in the fields of business, applied statistics, econometrics, and financial engineering. The handbook is also a good supplement for graduate and MBA-level courses on quantitative finance, volatility, and financial econometrics. Ionut Florescu, PhD, is Research Associate Professor in Financial Engineering and Director of the Hanlon Financial Systems Laboratory at Stevens Institute of Technology. His research interests include stochastic volatility, stochastic partial differential equations, Monte Carlo Methods, and numerical methods for stochastic processes. Dr. Florescu is the author of Probability and Stochastic Processes, the coauthor of Handbook of Probability, and the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, all published by Wiley. Maria C. Mariani, PhD, is Shigeko K. Chan Distinguished Professor in Mathematical Sciences and Chair of the Department of Mathematical Sciences at The University of Texas at El Paso. Her research interests include mathematical finance, applied mathematics, geophysics, nonlinear and stochastic partial differential equations and numerical methods. Dr. Mariani is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley. H. Eugene Stanley, PhD, is William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor at Boston University. Stanley is one of the key founders of the new interdisciplinary field of econophysics, and has an ISI Hirsch index H=128 based on more than 1200 papers. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Frederi G. Viens, PhD, is Professor of Statistics and Mathematics and Director of the Computational Finance Program at Purdue University. He holds more than two dozen local, regional, and national awards and he travels extensively on a world-wide basis to deliver lectures on his research interests, which range from quantitative finance to climate science and agricultural economics. A Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics Statistics, Dr. Viens is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley.