the principle of legality and international crimes in africa



Yilkal Hassabe International Custom as a Source of International Criminal Law Yilkal Hassabe International Custom as a Source of International Criminal Law Новинка

Yilkal Hassabe International Custom as a Source of International Criminal Law

International customary law is said to be the father of international law. Accordingly, international crimes are also assumed to evolve out of international customs. Even some international crimes are assumed to have jus cogens status from which no derogation is allowed. At the other angle, however, there is the principle of legality in the criminal law regime which requires strict time reference from which retroactive application of criminal laws is prohibited, precise provisions clearly putting prohibited acts, written provisions to refer such prohibited acts etc. Yet international customary law does not have the capacity to create international crimes fulfilling all these features of the principle of legality. On the other, the principle of legality is the principle which is accepted almost by all states of the world. Therefore, it is impossible for the international customary law to create international crimes duly accepted.
Kajigi Betu The International Criminal Court in Africa Kajigi Betu The International Criminal Court in Africa Новинка

Kajigi Betu The International Criminal Court in Africa

The ICC was established as an international effort to bring to justice individuals accused of crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. As a treaty-based institution, its effectiveness depends largely on a genuine multilateral cooperation with states and regional organisations. The defiance that the African Union has openly expressed recently negatively impacts the Court's achievements on the continent; where victims of serious human rights violations long to see justice. NGOs across Africa have systematically documented and reported human rights violations of international concern and strongly campaigned for the ratification of the Rome Statute. Does this defiance reflect changing perceptions of the Court's legitimacy among NGOs' in Africa in general and in Uganda in particular? How do NGOs' perceptions of the Court's legitimacy affect the course of events in the search for justice for victims of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity on the continent? Does the idea that a strong AfCHPR can effectively address the need for justice in Africa question the universality of the international justice?
Joseph Bemba Dictionary of International Justice, Peace and sustainable development. Key terms and phrases Joseph Bemba Dictionary of International Justice, Peace and sustainable development. Key terms and phrases Новинка

Joseph Bemba Dictionary of International Justice, Peace and sustainable development. Key terms and phrases

This dictionary gathers a list of key terms and phrases used in international justice as per the applicable international and regional legal texts: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes of genocide, crimes of aggression and other violations of the International Humanitarian Law. As a legal and educational tool, this book has the ambition to make accessible to all -lawyers or not, legal experts or non-experts and everyday laymen-, the sometimes "geeky" vocabulary of international justice, in order to better understand what it does and what is at stake. This dictionary also concerns the interrelated concepts of peace, sustainable development and the related notions of democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms, rule of Law, good governance and environmental protection.
Lord Loveday Ememe The Right to Self-Determination Lord Loveday Ememe The Right to Self-Determination Новинка

Lord Loveday Ememe The Right to Self-Determination

The right to self-determination is a complex legal principle in international law given the existence of supernatural beings. Also, the differences between the civil legal being without supernatural powers and senses recognized in international law and the supernatural illegal being with supernatural powers and senses not recognized in international law highlight the complexity of this legal principle.
Pawel Aleksander Kupis The principle of universal jurisdictionin international criminal law Pawel Aleksander Kupis The principle of universal jurisdictionin international criminal law Новинка

Pawel Aleksander Kupis The principle of universal jurisdictionin international criminal law

Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2016 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, , language: Polish, abstract: Przedmiotem niniejszej pracy jest analiza problematyki związanej z zasadą jurysdykcji uniwersalnej w systemie międzynarodowego prawa karnego. Całość rozważań została ujęta w czterech rozdziałach. Rozdział pierwszy poświęcony został przybliżeniu zasad, w oparciu o które państwa mogą wykonywać swoją jurysdykcję karną. W rozdziale drugim podjęto problem zakresu przedmiotowego jurysdykcji uniwersalnej Rozdział trzeci poświęcony został elementom jurysdykcji uniwersalnej w kontekście funkcjonowania międzynarodowych trybunałów karnych. W ostatnim rozdziale omówiono skuteczność immunitetu personalnego i funkcjonalnego jako przeszkody dla wykonywania jurysdykcji uniwersalnej. The aim of this book is to analyze the principle of universal jurisdiction in the system of international criminal law. Chapter One focuses on the traditional heads of jurisdiction and compares them with the principle of the universal jurisdiction. Chapter Two discusses the possible material scope of the universal jurisdiction and describes the most serious international crimes. Chapter Three addresses the elements of universal jurisdiction in the statutes and jurisprudence of the international criminal courts and tribunals. Chapter Four examines the issue of immunity in criminal proceedings.
Kateryna Krakhmalova Right to Property in Context of Cyber Crimes Kateryna Krakhmalova Right to Property in Context of Cyber Crimes Новинка

Kateryna Krakhmalova Right to Property in Context of Cyber Crimes

The growing market of the cyber space remains insecure, and right to property in it - in danger. This work has focus on the cyber crimes as threat to property. It analyses national (US, Ukraine) and international framework of the approaches to property and its legal protection from cyber crimes and draws recommendations how property in cyber space can be secured better.The Chapter I talks on the nature of the cyber crimes, their types and the relationship with property. It then explains how differently the property is viewed in common and civil law countries.The Chapter II continues with anti-cyber crime efforts of international organizations with special attention to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime and then concludes with two national systems: American and Ukrainian one. The helpful bibliography is added.
International Migration and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa International Migration and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa Новинка

International Migration and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa

The impact of international migration, both South-South as well as South-North, on the economic, social and political life of the people in Eastern and Southern Africa [was] not well documented and studied,- and 'the evidence-base for policy on migration and development [was] very weak.' With this in mind, OSSREA's invitation to conduct a study on international migration in Africa had the following objectives: To analyze the nature and type of South-South migration, focusing on issues, such as brain gain and/or brain drain, remittance flows, technical know-how transfers, violations of the right of African migrants and gender dimensions of migration; To investigate the dynamics of migration from Eastern and Southern Africa to the Arab Gulf States as well as to developed countries, focusing on the skills of migrants, brain gain and/or drain, remittance flows, technical know-how transfers, violations of the rights of African migrants and gender dimension of migrants; and to assess the successes, impediments and challenges of African international migrants from Eastern and Southern Africa and to formulate policy recommendations to maximize the gains and minimize the costs associated with international migration in Africa.
Ignatius Mabula The Relationship Between the South African Foreign Policy and the Millenium African Recovery Plan Ignatius Mabula The Relationship Between the South African Foreign Policy and the Millenium African Recovery Plan Новинка

Ignatius Mabula The Relationship Between the South African Foreign Policy and the Millenium African Recovery Plan

Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, , course: International Relations, language: English, abstract: The relationship between South Africa and MAP emanates from South Africa's Foreign policy which advanced: Promotion of justice, democracy and human rights as well as prosperity and security achieved through economic development. South Africa's philosophy of African Renaissance directed at rejuvenating and renewing Africa transforms the continent into an arena of peace, security and stability, was blended into MAP. Economically, South Africa's adoption of neo-liberal policies in MAP were encouraged by South Africa's incorporation of neo-liberal visions in MAP and have been influenced by the country's adoption of Growth, Equity and Redistribution (GEAR) in 1996. GEAR became the macro-economic framework for all policies of the government whose aim was to make South Africa the preferred destination for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as well as allowing the country to occupy a comfortable position in the rapidly globalising world. However, MAP has been grappling with numerous challenges and its dependency underpinning. These challenges include structural, endogenous and exogenous factors which continue to constrain Africa's endeavours.This paper focuses on the relationship between South African foreign policy and MAP. The paper explores foundations and the evolution of South African foreign policy datin...
D. Fleck Справочник по международному гуманитарному праву D. Fleck Справочник по международному гуманитарному праву Новинка

D. Fleck Справочник по международному гуманитарному праву

This second edition of this work sets out a comprehensive and analytical manual of international humanitarian law, accompanied by case analysis and extensive explanatory commentary by a team of distinguished and internationally renowned experts. Topics examined include the historical development, legal basis, and scope of application of international humanitarian law; methods and means of combat; protection of the civilian population, and of the wounded, sick or shipwrecked, and of prisoners of war; the protection of cultural property; the law of neutrality; and the enforcement of international humanitarian law. This edition also incorporates new chapters covering the law of non-international armed conflicts and international peace operations. Highly topical issues including the role of the UN Security Council, the relevance of International Humanitarian Law in peacetime and post-conflict military operations, and war crimes trials in national and international courts are also discussed.2008 год
Africa in Global Power Play. Debates, Challenges and Potential Reforms Africa in Global Power Play. Debates, Challenges and Potential Reforms Новинка

Africa in Global Power Play. Debates, Challenges and Potential Reforms

Africa in Global Power Play: Debates, Challenges and Potential Reforms is a compilation of insightful and analytical articles that were published in different issues of the journal, African Renaissance, between 2004 and 2006. Most of the articles are from established academics, researchers, development practitioners and policymakers as well as stakeholders in Africa. Though the perspectives are as varied as the contributions, the underlining themes are the current scramble for Africa and the various development trajectories vis-à-vis those of other regions of the world. Contributors also address the continuous interactions and inevitable contradictions between Africa and the rest of the world. The various contributions seek answers to a number of fundamental questions around Africa's position in the global political economy, focusing on such areas as international economic relations, political and economic reforms, democratic transitions and consolidations, human rights and security. Though contributions show that Africa faces enormous challenges in the global political economy, they also point to the current dynamism and optimism in many parts of the continent. ______________________________________________Bhekinkosi Moyo is currently based in Dakar, Senegal, where he conducts and manages research for TrustAfrica: a grant-making foundation focusing on regional integration, peace and security as well as citizenship and identity. His research interests include Africa's...
Lansana Edward Laws of war on International Justice and Peace Lansana Edward Laws of war on International Justice and Peace Новинка

Lansana Edward Laws of war on International Justice and Peace

The law in this area developed from the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1977, two additional protocols to the 1949 conventions were adopted. These built up and developed the earlier conventions. However,Common article three rooted humanitarian consideration in international law. The four Geneva conventions of 1949, state the principles of international law as they had by then emerged, in relation to the treatment of sick and wounded combatants, on land (i) And at sea (ii), prisoners of war (iii) and civilians (iv). It specifically prohibits murder, torture, hostage-taking, outrages up on persons dignity and extra-judicial and covers any military, police or guerilla action which has the deliberate result of killing or maiming civilians or prisoners. The international criminal tribunal for Rwanda and the Special Court for Sierra Leone were established to prosecute persons responsible for genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and the violations of the laws and customs of warfare. The success stories of these two international instruments had established international jurisprudence, and had contributed immensely to precluding impunity and augmenting international peace.
Adeniyi Olatunbosun Death Penalty Jurisprudence in Nigeria Adeniyi Olatunbosun Death Penalty Jurisprudence in Nigeria Новинка

Adeniyi Olatunbosun Death Penalty Jurisprudence in Nigeria

This book evaluated the underlying principle of retributive theory of punishment behind the application of death penalty fort the offenders and appraised the practice of death penalty by assessing the administration of death sentence through the mode and manner of execution.The study found that death penalty met some objectives of punishment; retribution and deterrence, although there are divergent public views and opinions on the subject.The author concluded that Nigerian society still needs death penalty system against the backdrop of incessant brutal killings, violent crimes, insurgencies, hate crimes so rampant and prevailing in recent times while identified shortcomings in its operation should be addressed in order to make it more functional; and that it is the system of trial rather than the punishment is prone to errors.
Maria Voorhees Maydan Diamond Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Maria Voorhees Maydan Diamond Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Новинка

Maria Voorhees Maydan Diamond Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Document from the year 2015 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 95, University of California, Berkeley , course: Peace & Conflict Studies, language: English, abstract: This paper is intended to trace the evolution of conflict diamond mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the success of international effort by means of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme to eliminate conflict by means of civil war, war, terrorism or insurgency. By evaluating the Kimberley Process and synthesizing the views of different authors, organizations and critics, I determine whether or not the process has accomplished what it set out to do and if it should be kept. Diamond mining is part of the cycle of natural resource exploitation that plagues the Democratic Republic of the Congo as well as many other parts of Africa, for decades in diamonds and centuries in human labor and other resources. The diamond issue was lowly ranked on the international radar for decades and became a clear priority during several civil wars in Africa in the 1990s. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme is an international effort that was put in place to eliminate conflict diamonds from being sold and financing war, insurgent groups or terrorism.
Sally Peberdy Competition or Co-operation. South African and Migrant Entrepreneurs in Johannesburg Sally Peberdy Competition or Co-operation. South African and Migrant Entrepreneurs in Johannesburg Новинка

Sally Peberdy Competition or Co-operation. South African and Migrant Entrepreneurs in Johannesburg

Debates about international migration in South Africa often centre on the role of international migrant entrepreneurs who are seen to be more successful than their South African counterparts, squeezing them out of entrepreneurial spaces, particularly in townships. This report explores and compares the experiences of international and South African migrant entrepreneurs operating informal sector businesses in Johannesburg.
Chinua Akukwe Beyond the Rhetoric. Essays in Africa.s Development Challenges Chinua Akukwe Beyond the Rhetoric. Essays in Africa.s Development Challenges Новинка

Chinua Akukwe Beyond the Rhetoric. Essays in Africa.s Development Challenges

Beyond the Rhetoric: Essays in Africa's Development ChallengesThere are many analyses of Africa's developmental challenges, most cloaked in fashionable buzzwords, semantics, grand theories and media-friendly mellifluous phrases. Dr Chinua Akukwe goes beyond the rhetoric to pose a simple question: what can be done? With policymakers and general readers in mind, he discusses and proffers solutions to a number of current contentious issues in Africa, - from the Darfur crisis in the Sudan, African Union's Diaspora strategies, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) to the political crises simmering in his own country, Nigeria. ___________________________ Dr Chinua Akukwe is an adjunct professor of both global health and community/preventative health at the George Washington University School of Public Health, Washington, DC, USA, and also Chairman of the Technical Advisory Board of the university's Africa Center for Health and Human Security. He was equally a former member of the Executive Committee of the university's Medical Center Faculty Senate, the highest representative body of all professors affiliated with the medical center. A former Vice-Chairman of the Executive Committee and Governing Board of the National Council for International Health, NCIH, (now known as the Global Health Council, Washington, DC), Dr Akukwe was also a member of the International Human Rights Committee of the American Public Health Association as well as a boar...
Taddia Irma Horn of Africa 20th Century Taddia Irma Horn of Africa 20th Century Новинка

Taddia Irma Horn of Africa 20th Century

In the last decades, the Horn of Africa has been stigmatized as one of the most unstable regions in the world with no place for peace-building, institution building, or democratic processes.This volume deals with Eritrea in the context of recent political developments in the Horn of Africa and neighboring countries. The author analyzes the emergence of nationalism and the political struggle in Eritrea while trying to identify the main dynamics of state formation and the role of colonialism according to different scholarly perspectives. Twenty years later, Eritrea has received a great deal of attention and an international debate is still ongoing. This gives a new contribution to the dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa.
Getahun Kumie The Role of Hydropower for Regional Integration. The Case of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam Getahun Kumie The Role of Hydropower for Regional Integration. The Case of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam Новинка

Getahun Kumie The Role of Hydropower for Regional Integration. The Case of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

Master's Thesis from the year 2015 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: Very Good, Addis Ababa University (Department of Politcal Science and International Relations), course: International Relations, language: English, abstract: The commencement of Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on April 2, 2011 dictates significant change on the ground which challenges the hydro political status quo of the Nile basin. The construction of the dam facilitates discussion among states of the region over the impacts of the dam and the possibilities of future utilization of the River. Thus, this study attempted to investigate the role of GERD for regional integration. The researcher attempted to examine the role of GERD for regional integration in the Horn of Africa in view of challenges and prospects ahead. In addition, the study tried to analyze the role of GERD for maintaining peace and stability in the region and also its implications for Ethiopia. Methodologically, the research is based on a qualitative research approach. The study has used secondary sources. It also used primary data through in-depth interview with officials and experts from relevant institutions and authorities. The available sources are analyzed by using descriptive and explanatory research approaches. The major findings of the study reveal that GERD will be a catalyst for regional integration in the Horn of Africa through providing energy interconnection and creating econo...
Ikechukwu Anthony KANU, Ejikemeuwa J. O. NDUBISI PhD, Catherine Chiugo KANU Africa at the Cross Roads of Violence and Gender Inequality. The Dilemma of Continuity in the Face of Change Ikechukwu Anthony KANU, Ejikemeuwa J. O. NDUBISI PhD, Catherine Chiugo KANU Africa at the Cross Roads of Violence and Gender Inequality. The Dilemma of Continuity in the Face of Change Новинка

Ikechukwu Anthony KANU, Ejikemeuwa J. O. NDUBISI PhD, Catherine Chiugo KANU Africa at the Cross Roads of Violence and Gender Inequality. The Dilemma of Continuity in the Face of Change

This piece, which is a collection of papers presented at the 2018 International Conference of the Association of or the Promotion of African Studies, focuses on two major faces of violence in Africareligiopolitical violence and violence against women. It also studied the developments in literature in the face of changes taking place in Africa. The present work is one of the greatest developments in scholarship in African studies.
Contemporary Issues in Mental Health Care in sub-Saharan Africa Contemporary Issues in Mental Health Care in sub-Saharan Africa Новинка

Contemporary Issues in Mental Health Care in sub-Saharan Africa

Seventy percent of the global burden of mental disorders is located in low and middle income countries (LMIC),including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, in Africa,only 0.62% of the national health budget is allocated to mental health compared to a global median of 2.8% and 5% in Europe. The government is the source of funding in 62%of patients with severe mental disorder in the World Health Organisation (WHO), Africa Region, the lowest of all the WHO regions, and lower compared to a global median of 79%. This is compounded by poor resources, with mental health outpatient facilities in WHO Africa Region being less that 10% of the global median. To address these problems, the WHO launched its Mental Health Action Gap Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, to scale-up mental health services in low and middle income countries (LMIC). The book is directed to all policy makers in sub-Saharan Africa to aid decision making about the urgent need for sustainable and relevant mental health care strategies, and the important areas that need priority. The book should be helpful to local and international researchers in formulating research questions relevant to the African continent and it will be of interest to medical practitioners and students in the region as adjunct to standard text books.
Dale Jacquette Cannabis - Philosophy for Everyone. What Were We Just Talking About? Dale Jacquette Cannabis - Philosophy for Everyone. What Were We Just Talking About? Новинка

Dale Jacquette Cannabis - Philosophy for Everyone. What Were We Just Talking About?

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The debate on the status and legality of cannabis continues to gain momentum. Here, personal anecdotes combined with academic and scientific reports combine to sharpen some of the fascinating philosophical issues associated with cannabis use. A frank, professionally informed and playful discussion of cannabis usage in relation to philosophical inquiry Considers the meaning of a ‘high’, the morality of smoking marijuana for pleasure, the slippery slope to more dangerous drugs, and the human drive to alter our consciousness Not only incorporates contributions from philosophers, psychologists, sociologists or legal, pharmacological, and medical experts, but also non-academics associated with the cultivation, distribution, and sale of cannabis Brings together an international team of writers from the United States, Canada, UK, Finland, Switzerland, South Africa, and New Zealand
Murray Baird Account for the polarisation of South African society between 1960 and 1964 Murray Baird Account for the polarisation of South African society between 1960 and 1964 Новинка

Murray Baird Account for the polarisation of South African society between 1960 and 1964

Essay from the year 2007 in the subject History - World History - Modern History, grade: 1c, University of Stirling, course: Apartheid and Resistance in South Africa, 1948 - 1994, language: English, abstract: Apartheid and Resistance in South Africa, 1948 - 1994Any account of the polarisation of African society into distinct white and black polarities, on the right and left wings of the political spectrum respectively, between 1960 and 1964 must be considered in the light of pre-existing relationships between whites and non-whites in South Africa, which manifested themselves in microcosm with events at Sharpeville on 21 March 1960. Critical to the discussion will be the role played by the National Party government, particularly relating to the creation of the Republic of South Africa in 1961, withdrawal from the Commonwealth of Nations in the same year, the 1961 General Election and the government's racial policy. The function of the United Party, as the party of Official opposition, will also be scrutinised, together with the role of the Liberal Party and the Progressive Party. Analysis of the ideologies of the African resistance movements, including the African National Congress, with Umkhonto we Sizwe, and the Pan-Africanist Congress, with Poqo, will further reveal reasons for the adoption of extreme opposing attitudes. Moreover, these diametric attitudes were subjected to influence from, and response to, international events both within Africa and globally.
Tobias Henze The UN genocide convention Tobias Henze The UN genocide convention Новинка

Tobias Henze The UN genocide convention

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: International Organisations, grade: 8.0, Maastricht University, language: English, abstract: The hybrid term genocide was modeled by Raphael Lemkin and used for the first time in his book "Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress" (1944) and sought to describe the cruelties and mass murdering committed by the Nazis in the Second World War. Lemkin, a Polish lawyer who himself was persecuted by the Nazi system, thereby created "a new term and a new conception for [...] the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group" (Lemkin, 1944, p. 79). A term that henceforward was used in order to depict the "crime of crimes" (Schabas, 2008a, p. 4), crimes that could not have been named before.
Li Anshan A History of Overseas Chinese in Africa to 1911 Li Anshan A History of Overseas Chinese in Africa to 1911 Новинка

Li Anshan A History of Overseas Chinese in Africa to 1911

The first English translation of part one of Li Anshan's seminal work Feizhou Huaqiao Huaren Shi, A History of Overseas Chinese in Africa to 1911 explores early Chinese knowledge of and contacts with Africa through Chinese literature on Africa and current archeological evidence, suggesting Sino-African trade existed as early as the seventh century. Li provides readers with an uncomplicated history of Chinese in Africa, examining their story from multiple perspectives, using approaches and sources found in economic history, social history, international relations, and migration in world history. While Li maintains the first group of Chinese were prisoners brought by the Dutch from Southeast Asia in the seventeenth century, the vast majority of early Chinese in Africa were "free immigrants" and contract labors that established key communities and organizations. It is these early Chinese which laid foundations for and provide important context in interpreting the recent flow of Chinese migrants and capital into various parts of Africa. The book should be of value to African and world historians, sociologists, anthropologists, and students of African and Asian studies.
Tesfay Zelalem IGAD.s Counter-terrorism Initiative in the Horn of Africa Sub-Region Tesfay Zelalem IGAD.s Counter-terrorism Initiative in the Horn of Africa Sub-Region Новинка

Tesfay Zelalem IGAD.s Counter-terrorism Initiative in the Horn of Africa Sub-Region

Today, the Horn of Africa is a hot spot of international terrorism. Thanks to its geographical proximity and strong historical tie with the Middle East where many militant Islamic extremists originate, it has become a breeding ground and haven of international terrorist groups. Although there are some complementary factors; religion particularly Islam manifested in the form of Wahhabism ideology is the major cause of international terrorism in the sub-region. Against this backdrop, IGAD started initiatives to counter-terrorism. As a regional development organization, it has extended its mandate to take peace and security in the Sub-region seriously since 1996. Likewise, since the September 11 tragedy on America, member states have became conscious about the security challenge posed by international terrorism and planned to take a joint action. Accordingly, IGAD focused on looking for ways and means to support the efforts of member states in fighting terrorism. However, though IGAD has gone a long way in countering international terrorism in the Horn of Africa, its effort is far from success due to institutional, sub-regional and external involvement challenges.
Nicholas Sunday Settlements of International Disputes Nicholas Sunday Settlements of International Disputes Новинка

Nicholas Sunday Settlements of International Disputes

Scientific Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, , language: English, abstract: Article 2, paragraph 3 of the UN Charter requires that: "All Members shall settle theirinternational disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peaceand security and justice are not endangered. The UN General Assembly, in adoptingits 1982 Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, emphasized theneed to exert utmost efforts in order to settlement any conflicts and disputesbetween States exclusively by peaceful means'' and that'' the question of thepeaceful settlement of disputes should represent one of the concerns for States andfor the United Nations". In age of nuclear weapons, the importance of the principle ofpeaceful settlement of international disputes is apparent.
Erika Machacek Sustainable Development in Western Anglophone Africa Erika Machacek Sustainable Development in Western Anglophone Africa Новинка

Erika Machacek Sustainable Development in Western Anglophone Africa

Diploma Thesis from the year 2007 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Development Politics, grade: Gut, University of applied sciences (IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems), course: International Law, language: English, abstract: Sustainable development has been on the international agenda since the 1970s and there is general agreement that this topic is of international concern for the global community, also with a view to its interlinks with and affects on poverty.The demand for concrete objectives to tackle the many faces of poverty was met by the creation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which are intended to be met by the year 2015 and are expected to lift a large number of people out of poverty. A total of eight goals and eighteen targets address challenges such as nutrition, education, health, gender equality, environmental sustainability and global partnerships. Continuous progress has been achieved so far in most of the world's regions except for Sub-Saharan Africa.Many economies in Sub-Saharan Africa are dominated by extractive industries. With this background, MDG 7, ensuring environmental sustainability, in particular Target 9, concerned with reversing the loss of natural resources, is of particular relevance in this region. West Africa, especially the former British colonies, has extensive natural tropical forest resources which need to be managed sustainably not only to prevent the extinction of biodiversity and species ...
Marta Krepska Adopting partnership. regional approach on the EU-partnership principle in Poland Marta Krepska Adopting partnership. regional approach on the EU-partnership principle in Poland Новинка

Marta Krepska Adopting partnership. regional approach on the EU-partnership principle in Poland

Master's Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: 1,7, Hertie School of Governance, language: English, abstract: Partnership has become a central principle of EU policies and is nowadays treated as a vital part of EU structural funds. The adoption of the partnership approach has been a challenge in the Polish public policy system throughout the 2004-2006 and 2007-2013 financial perspective periods. The thesis considers the adoption of the partnership principle at the regional level in Poland, focusing on the example of the Mazovia Monitoring Committee. It is concerned with the questions: How the expectations of the EU partnership approach are met in the regional practice? What is the actual role of social and economic partners in the decision-making process? How possible disparities between goals of the partnership policy and its outcomes can be explained? The evidence presented suggests that there is significant resistance in adopting the partnership principle in the Mazovia Monitoring Committee. The implementation reality does not live up to the expectations of the partnership assumptions expressed in the EU cohesion policy. Partnership has more mechanistic character of fulfilling donor's obligation than organic need of participatory working. In many aspects the partnership is a facade - it has an institutionalized form with limited content. This can be explained by political mechanisms contained in t...
Ingabire Mackline Legal regime governing transfer of cases from the ICTR to Rwanda Ingabire Mackline Legal regime governing transfer of cases from the ICTR to Rwanda Новинка

Ingabire Mackline Legal regime governing transfer of cases from the ICTR to Rwanda

This research analyses transfer of cases from the ICTR to Rwandan courts thereby examining decisions on the requests for referral at the time of research, discusses ICTR's imprecise view on transfer of cases to Rwanda; assesses the principle of equality under both international and Rwandan law, and highlights discrepancies created by the Legal regime on Transfer of Cases (LTC). It examines the impact of LTC on the principle of equality, deterrence and reconciliation in Rwanda.
Adler K. H. Homes and Homecomings. Gendered Histories of Domesticity and Return Adler K. H. Homes and Homecomings. Gendered Histories of Domesticity and Return Новинка

Adler K. H. Homes and Homecomings. Gendered Histories of Domesticity and Return

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In Homes and Homecomings an international group of scholars provide inspiring new historical perspectives on the politics of homes and homecomings. Using innovative methodological and theoretical approaches, the book examines case studies from Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Provides inspiring new historical perspectives on the politics of homes and homecomings Takes an historical approach to a subject area that is surprisingly little historicised Features original research from a group of international scholars The book has an international approach that focuses on Africa, Asia, the Americas and East and West Europe Contains original illustrations of homes in a variety of historical contexts
Emmanuel David Togba Why community policing in Liberia was less effective Emmanuel David Togba Why community policing in Liberia was less effective Новинка

Emmanuel David Togba Why community policing in Liberia was less effective

Master's Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: 68, Coventry University, course: Terrorism, International Crimes and Global Security, language: English, abstract: Community policing is a new phenomenon widely used to provide security extension through police-community partnership or cooperation between the state security providers and the community. This philosophy has proven to be an alternative for developing countries especially where the state capacity to provide security is limited. This process involves using the community for crimes information, crimes prevention and fighting crimes. Hence, various communities have adopted the approach of combining community partnerships with people and police personnel as it leads to strengthening crime prevention, combating strategies and procedures (Wehrman 2011). However, the results of COP in different part of the world vary especially judging from the different forms, challenges and different situations confronting the implementation. According to Wisler and Onwudiwe (2008) and Denny (2013), the Western model of the COP entails a situation where the State organize COP activities for proper community partnership while the African model is an establishment organized by the people. With either of the methods, Liberia's experience was less effective due to factors outlined as the exclusion of Non-state security providers from the SSR pro...
Khanh Pham-Gia Consolidated financial statements in IAS/IFRS and German GAAP - Major differences explained Khanh Pham-Gia Consolidated financial statements in IAS/IFRS and German GAAP - Major differences explained Новинка

Khanh Pham-Gia Consolidated financial statements in IAS/IFRS and German GAAP - Major differences explained

Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2008 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 1,3, University of applied sciences, Munich, language: English, abstract: Due to a regulation of the European Union (EU) concerning financial accounting issued on June 6th, 2002, all listed companies in EU are obligated to provide their Consolidated Financial Statements (CFS) in accordance with financial accounting principles of International Accounting Standards (IAS) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) from January 1st, 2005. This regulation enables a necessary harmonization of accounting principles within the EU and supports a clear comparability of CFS worldwide. The object of this study is to analyze major differences of CFS in German GAAP and IAS/IFRS. Thereby, variations of both accounting standards are compared and a major difference is explained thoroughly with a concrete example.The major differences of CFS in IAS/IFRS and German GAAP result from different aims of both accounting standards. The German GAAP is strongly based on prudence principle for protection of creditors and authoritative principle (tax accounting based on commercial accounting). In comparison, the IAS/IFRS deliver potential investors realistic and decision useful information about assets, finance, and profit situations of a company (true and fair view / fair presentation principle). These basic principles could be reflected in several key points...
DFF INTERNATIONAL My Paperback Book DFF INTERNATIONAL My Paperback Book Новинка

DFF INTERNATIONAL My Paperback Book

This basically illustrates the difficulties which Entrepreneurs encounter on their output in different cultures and abide by the principle of nature The Eco-System principles relates today's dynamic bustle of resolving complexities in human life system, to the symbiotic lives of different consistent and mutually dependent of sustainability, harmony, and peace throughout the entire globe.
Kenneth Omeje The Crises of Postcoloniality in Africa Kenneth Omeje The Crises of Postcoloniality in Africa Новинка

Kenneth Omeje The Crises of Postcoloniality in Africa

The Crises of Postcoloniality in Africa is an assemblage of transdisciplinary essays that offer a spirited reflection on the debate and phenomenon of postcoloniality in Africa, including the changing patterns and ramifications of problems, challenges and opportunities associated with it. A key conceptual rhythm that runs through the various chapters of the book is that, far from being demised, postcoloniality is still firmly embedded in Africa, manifesting itself in both blatant and insidious forms. Among the important themes covered in the book include the concepts of postcolonialism, postcoloniality, and neocolonialism; Africa’s precolonial formations and the impact of colonialism; the enduring patterns of colonial legacies in Africa; the persistent contradictions between African indigenous institutions and western versions of modernity; the unravelling of the postcolonial state and issues of armed conflict, conflict intervention and peacebuilding; postcolonial imperialism in Africa and the US-led global war on terror, the historical and postcolonial contexts of gender relations in Africa, as well as pan-Africanism and regionalist approaches to redressing the crises of postcoloniality.
Abdelkrim Dekhakhena A New American Century for Africa. Rhetoric or Reality. Abdelkrim Dekhakhena A New American Century for Africa. Rhetoric or Reality. Новинка

Abdelkrim Dekhakhena A New American Century for Africa. Rhetoric or Reality.

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: A, Université 8 Mai 1945 (Université 8 Mai 1945, Guelma), course: American civilization, language: English, abstract: The twenty first century announced more promising for the black continent as the US turned massively and determinedly to Africa. Despite previous attempts by former administrations, it was the Bush administration which showed more interest in an economically and politically distressed area for so long. In the light of the international competition over the continent's resources, the United States possesses clear and compelling national interests in Africa. There are vital security, economic, and humanitarian interests, including reliable long-term access to energy, shared largely by the African people and the international community. Yet, despite the rhetoric, did the Bush Administration really work to bring about a fairer and more just Africa? One of the central questions which need to be asked is to what extent did President Bush's policy to help the African nations solidify the overall US policy? Or was his project implementation influenced largely by narrow American realpolitik perspectives thus missing the opportunity to lay the foundation for a well established Wilsonian idealism? Although George W. Bush's administration claimed to have made major new contributions to public health, promoting development, fostering democracy and peace in...
Barbara Berthoud The Precautionary Principle in EU Risk Regulation. A Matter of Priorities Barbara Berthoud The Precautionary Principle in EU Risk Regulation. A Matter of Priorities Новинка

Barbara Berthoud The Precautionary Principle in EU Risk Regulation. A Matter of Priorities

The precautionary principle provides a justification to act where scientific uncertainty about the nature and extent of detected indications of harm would otherwise possibly impede regulatory interventions. The highly controversial and often misunderstood principle plays a central role in European risk regulation. The present volume should allow readers to gain an overview of all essential points linked with the role of the principle in the risk regulation framework of the European Union. Based on an outline of the precautionary principle's main characteristics and its conception by the European Commission, common allegations brought against the principle are illuminated and critically assessed. The second part of the book is then devoted to the actual implementation of the principle in the EU - from early applications to ongoing disputes. Three case studies from the agrochemical, pharmaceutical and food packaging sector reflect current applications as well as the relevant institutional and procedural framework. Insights from the theoretical part and the case studies are melted in the final discussion section that also includes recommendations for EU risk regulators.
Chmilenko Svitlana Towards an optimal bankruptcy law Chmilenko Svitlana Towards an optimal bankruptcy law Новинка

Chmilenko Svitlana Towards an optimal bankruptcy law

This book reviews current researches on the issues of bankruptcy with the aim to identify the possibility of achieving a unified international bankruptcy law that could be used by all the countries. Legal regulations applied in relation to international bankruptcy disputes are usually based on the territorial principle and are national in their nature. They have proven not to be very efficient in resolving bankruptcies with cross-border element, which involve more complex legal issues. The introduction of a unified international bankruptcy law could provide predictability and efficiency for such cases. However, as the review indicates, country differences and existing approaches make global unification of bankruptcy legislation and procedures not achievable, at least in the nearest future, and the full harmonization of international bankruptcy legislation very difficult, if possible at all.
Ignatius Mabula Africa.s development trajectory. From NIEO to NEPAD Ignatius Mabula Africa.s development trajectory. From NIEO to NEPAD Новинка

Ignatius Mabula Africa.s development trajectory. From NIEO to NEPAD

Academic Paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, Northwest University, course: International Relations, language: English, abstract: Africa's challenges in implementing developmental programmes have to do with fundamentals of the very idea of their dependency underpinning. These challenges include structural, endogenous and exogenous factors which continue to constrain Africa's endeavours. So the argument is that Africa failed to implement or was initially destined to fail. The paper delves deeper into Africa's development trajectory reflecting that developmental plans were destined to fail as long as there was no clear paradigm shift from the long standing and perpetual asymmetric donor-recipient relationship still steeped within weakened neo-colonial relations that are incommensurate with Africa's developmental path.
Ibrahim Gamawa Yusuf The Dispute in Cyprus Island Ibrahim Gamawa Yusuf The Dispute in Cyprus Island Новинка

Ibrahim Gamawa Yusuf The Dispute in Cyprus Island

The Cyprus issue has generated reactions from scholars, policy makers, International Organizations as well as from several countries across the globe for decades. The dispute in the Island appeared to have become more complicated after the republic of Turkey intervened in 1974. And since then controversy continued to trail such intervention and its legality under International Law was challenged. This works tries to shed some light about the legal position of Turkey's intervention in the Island, and at the same time looking at a likely solution to the political deadlock between the two Cyprus communities in the Island.The works also takes a look at how the Cyprus issue is seen to affect Turkey's EU membership and concludes that there is need for a settlement of the age long dispute in the Island.
Mark-Marcel Müller Africa.s place in the international football system Mark-Marcel Müller Africa.s place in the international football system Новинка

Mark-Marcel Müller Africa.s place in the international football system

Master's Thesis from the year 2007 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 70, Stellenbosch Universitiy, 180 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: For millions of people around the globe, football is an important part of everyday life. Similarly, many African governments have found in international football competitions one of the few opportunities to be internationally represented. Furthermore, through successful participation of their respective national football sides, they internally seek to foster nationhood. In fact, football is an integral part of African self-esteem with regards to being recognised by the rest of the world. However, to succeed in international sports means to succeed in a politico-economic structure far from equality and general solidarity. This thesis goes about the question why South Africa received the FIFA 2010 World Cup. Thereby it will distinguish the position of the African continent within the international football system. A historical analysis will clarify the processes and actors as well as the driving motivations which led to the FIFA World Cup host decision in favour of the African continent. The outcome of this study suggests that social interaction is driven by the interplay of two variables: normative principles and economic practices. The historical development of modern social behaviour from the 16th century until today's global capitalism surely reflects the interplay of ...
Nico Smit From the ICISS Report to the 2005 World Summit Nico Smit From the ICISS Report to the 2005 World Summit Новинка

Nico Smit From the ICISS Report to the 2005 World Summit

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: International Organisations, grade: 70, University of Cape Town (Department of Political Science), course: International Relations, language: English, abstract: A large portion of the literature that deals with the evolution of the R2P focuses on the principle's progression from the ICISS report to the HLP report, the Secretary-General's report and ultimately the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. This thesis provides a discussion of the main events and arguments that have influenced the debate around the R2P and the principle's evolution, namely, the war on terror and the 2003 war in Iraq, the crisis in Darfur, and lastly, U.N. Security Council buy-in regarding the ICISS articulated criteria to guide the use of military force in humanitarian intervention. The thesis is divided into three sections, the first providing a conceptual background to humanitarian intervention. The second part shifts the discussion to the ICISS and the R2P, and the final section focuses on the main factors that have influenced the principle's evolution. A central theme underlying the reason for the undertaking of this thesis is the claim that the international system is experiencing a change in the writers/authors of the rules of the system. The argument is built by using the abovementioned main factors influencing the R2P's evolution as evidence - the central assertion being that the wa...
Marvin Ankrah Conflict Resolution in Africa - The Case of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Marvin Ankrah Conflict Resolution in Africa - The Case of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Новинка

Marvin Ankrah Conflict Resolution in Africa - The Case of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU)

Master's Thesis from the year 2004 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 1.9, University of Freiburg (University of Freiburg (Germany) and Kwazulu Natal( South Africa)), course: Sociology - Global Studies Programme, language: English, abstract: The objective of this paper was to investigate the causes of conflict in Africa and the role played by the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in ensuring political order during its period of existence. The study employed content analysis of historical documents, academic works, Internet sources and also current conflict situations in Africa as a baseline for its argument. The results showed that, despite the role of ethnicity as a source of conflicts in Africa, political and economic factors are the major sources of tension on the continent. The OAU, this paper argues, could not have a tangible impact in its attempt to ensure peace and stability on the continent, hence the functional shift in the role of Sub-regional Organisations in the continent in the area of peace and security. Notwithstanding its logistical and financial weaknesses, the Organisation failed to understand the sources of tension of most of these conflicts so as to map out a more pragmatic, multi- sectoral, and multi- dimensional approach to manage and resolve them. Factors such as the need for a more pragmatic and realistic continental policies involving good governance and genuine decentralisation were identified as crucial e...
Tumwesigye Stephen Towards a Decade of the International Criminal Court in Africa Tumwesigye Stephen Towards a Decade of the International Criminal Court in Africa Новинка

Tumwesigye Stephen Towards a Decade of the International Criminal Court in Africa

Since its Inception, the ICC is seized of five situations; Uganda, DRC, CAR, Darfur and Kenya. The court already faces challenges in its work and these range from a complimentarity hurdle, failures in state cooperation, inability to execute arrest warrants and failure to impact the lives of Victims and affected communities. The Court, especially in Africa faces the challenge of non- cooperation from the Supra National Bodies like the African Union especially inexecuting the Al Bashir arrest Warrant. In this book, the Author proposes some solutions that the court can adopt to improve its work in Africa.
Michael Shapiro J. War Crimes, Atrocity and Justice Michael Shapiro J. War Crimes, Atrocity and Justice Новинка

Michael Shapiro J. War Crimes, Atrocity and Justice

5273.78 руб. или Купить в рассрочку!
What do we know about war crimes and justice? What are the discursive practices through which the dominant images of war crimes, atrocity and justice are understood? In this wide ranging text, Michael J. Shapiro contrasts the justice-related imagery of the war crimes trial (for example the solitary, headphone-wearing defendant at the Hague listening with intent to a catalogue of charges) with ?literary justice?: representations in literature, film, and biographical testimony, raising questions about atrocities and justice that juridical proceedings exclude. By engaging with the ambiguities exposed by the artistic and experiential genres, reading them alongside policy and archival documentation and critical theoretical discourses, Shapiro?s War Crimes, Atrocity, and Justice challenges traditional notions of ?responsibility? in juridical settings. His comparative readings instead encourage a focus on the conditions of possibility for war crimes as they arise from the actions of states, non-state agencies and individuals involved in arms trading, peace keeping, sex trafficking, and law enforcement and adjudication. Theory springs to life as Shapiro draws on examples from legal discourse, literature, media, film, and television, to build a nuanced picture of politics and the problem of justice. It will be of great interest to students of film and media, literature, cultural studies, contemporary philosophy and political science
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (Volume 1 Number 1 2009) African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (Volume 1 Number 1 2009) Новинка

African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (Volume 1 Number 1 2009)

AJSTID is a multi-disciplinary and refereed international journal on science, technology, innovation and development in Africa and other low-income countries. It was established in appreciation of the role and importance of innovation in the development processes and the recognition of the relative absence of research in this area in Africa. AJSTID encourages research along the following broad areas: a) The role of science, technology and innovation in the processes of industrial growth and development. b) The emergence and the making of innovation systems in the context of broader socio-economic development. c) Exploring the inclusion of innovation and knowledge in sub-national, regional, global and local innovation networks and cross border integration processes in Africa. d) Research on the interaction among governments, industries, businesses, universities and communities in the use and application of science, technology and innovation policies. e) Critiques of science, technology and innovation policies and their applications in Africa.f) Exploring core-evolutions, broad-based innovations and indigenous knowledge systems in the context of African development.
Vusi Gumede Political Economy of Post-apartheid South Africa Vusi Gumede Political Economy of Post-apartheid South Africa Новинка

Vusi Gumede Political Economy of Post-apartheid South Africa

The book, made up of three parts, covers a wide spectrum of political economy issues on post-apartheid South Africa. Although the text is mainly descriptive, to explain various areas of the political economy of post-apartheid South Africa, the first and the last parts provide illuminating insights on the kind of society that is emerging during the twenty-one years of democracy in the country. The book discusses important aspects of the political history of apartheid South Africa and the evolution of post-apartheid society, including an important recap of the history of southern Africa before colonialism. The text is a comprehensive description of numerous political economy phenomena since South Africa gained its political independence and covers some important themes that have not been discussed in detail in other publications on post-apartheid South Africa. The book also updates earlier work of the author on policy and law making, land and agriculture, education and training as well as on poverty and inequality in post-apartheid South Africa thereby providing a wide-ranging overview of the socio-economic development approaches followed by the successive post-apartheid administrations. Interestingly, three chapters focus on various aspects of the post-apartheid South African economy: economic policies, economic empowerment and industrial development. Through the lens of the notion of democratic developmental state and taking apartheid colonialism as a point of departure, the ...
Timo Knaebe The principle of common heritage of mankind in the new law of the sea. An African perspective based on Nasila S. Rembe.s work Timo Knaebe The principle of common heritage of mankind in the new law of the sea. An African perspective based on Nasila S. Rembe.s work Новинка

Timo Knaebe The principle of common heritage of mankind in the new law of the sea. An African perspective based on Nasila S. Rembe.s work

Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2006 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, grade: B+, University of Dar es Salaam (Faculty of Law), course: Law of the Sea, 66 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Hailed as a milestone in the development of international relations and sparked by the remarks of the Ambassador of Malta - Arvid Pardo - at the United Nations General Assembly, besides the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the principle of Common Heritage of Mankind found entry in numerous international treaties.Changing the conception of the Freedom of the High Seas as brought about some 400 years ago by Dutch Lawyer Hugo Grotius and 'ruling the world' ever since, this paper analyzes the legal significance of the principle from an African perspective.Based on the notions brought forward by the Group of 77, of which the African contribution to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was part, Nasila S. Rembe formulated the following African demands for the translation of the concept of Common Heritage of Mankind into the envisaged New Law of the Sea. These are namely: the usage of the seabed for exclusively peaceful purposes, ensuring the rational exploitation of the resources, and the minimization of likely adverse economic effects.Following the historical developments between the 1958 Geneva Conventions and the aftermath of the 1994 Agreement Relating to the Impl...
Evidence, Ethos and Experiment. The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa Evidence, Ethos and Experiment. The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa Новинка

Evidence, Ethos and Experiment. The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa

Medical research has been central to biomedicine in Africa for over a century, and Africa, along with other tropical areas, has been crucial to the development of medical science. At present, study populations in Africa participate in an increasing number of medical research projects and clinical trials, run by both public institutions and private companies. Global debates about the politics and ethics of this research are growing and local concerns are prompting calls for social studies of the "trial communities" produced by this scientific work. Drawing on rich, ethnographic and historiographic ---material, this volume represents the emergent field of anthropological inquiry that links Africanist ethnography to recent concerns with science, the state, and the culture of late capitalism in Africa.
Sahar Farman The history of the ANC and the Tripartite Alliance Sahar Farman The history of the ANC and the Tripartite Alliance Новинка

Sahar Farman The history of the ANC and the Tripartite Alliance

Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 1,7, University of Marburg, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: For more than 40 years the South African National Party (NP) was in power governing the country with a racist system of segregation. For the black and colored majority of the country it was a time of fear, harassment, persecution and injustice. Throughout the years the global community was aware of the political situation in South Africa. The major issue of this paper is to examine the positions and campaigns of different countries of the global community toward the situation in South Africa, especially focusing on political and economic reactions from the sixties until 1989. First of all a brief overview will be given on the economics of the apartheid system in order to create an awareness of the general conditions whereupon the strategic importance of South Africa for the global community will be issued. In order to mediate a sufficient background knowledge sanctions will be defined and different sanction scenarios that were possible will be discussed. Subsequently a chronology of sanctions towards South Africa will be given in order to then focus on The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), its interests in and reactions towards the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to the limitation of this paper Germany will be taken as an example for the policies of many Western states. However,...
Tobias Erbert The emerging black middle class in South Africa and its relation to democracy Tobias Erbert The emerging black middle class in South Africa and its relation to democracy Новинка

Tobias Erbert The emerging black middle class in South Africa and its relation to democracy

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 1,3, Free University of Berlin, language: English, abstract: 19 years after the promising democratic change in South Africa, the countrieschallenges and disparities remain ubiquitous. The huge majority of black South Africansstill lives in poverty, inequality has grown since the end of apartheid, service delivery isa permanent problem and democratic institutions are at least partly weak (Holden2012: 95).However, the new South Africa is not only signified by the aggravation of disparities.Over the last years, the emergence of a black middle class became steadily moretangible and is today a mostly undisputed phenomenon (Schrire 2005: 271; Southall2004: 539; Everatt 2011: 79). Some research has been conducted especially todetermine definition criteria and the size of a black middle class (Rivero et al. 2003;Southall 2004; Visagie, Posel 2011; Phadi, Ceruti 2011). The total middle class in SouthAfrica included 29% black South Africans in 1994, while until 2011, their share hadgrown to 49.8% of the total middle class (Holden 2012: 226-227). In absolute numbers,the black middle class made up five million people in 2011 (Visagie, Posel 2011: 8, 17)while South Africa had a total black population of around 41 million people (StatisticsSA 2011). Hence, approximately 8.2% of the black population group belongs to theblack middle class.Although there is research discussing the size...
Hemingway E. Green Hills Of Africa Hemingway E. Green Hills Of Africa Новинка

Hemingway E. Green Hills Of Africa

Green Hills of Africa is Ernest Hemingway's lyrical journal of a month on safari in the great game country of East Africa, where he and his wife Pauline journeyed in December 1933. Hemingway's well-known interest in - and fascination with - big-game hunting is magnificently captured in this evocative account of his trip. It is an examination of the lure of the hunt and an impassioned portrait of the glory of the African landscape and of the beauty of a wilderness that was, even then, being threatened by the incursions of man.
Захарова Лариса Ивановна International Sports Law. Textbook For Bachelor Students Захарова Лариса Ивановна International Sports Law. Textbook For Bachelor Students Новинка

Захарова Лариса Ивановна International Sports Law. Textbook For Bachelor Students

The Textbook was prepared in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard for Higher Education as applied to specialisation 40.03.01 "Jurisprudence" (Bachelor (degree) qualification) and the syllabus of the academic discipline "International Sports Law", approved by the International Law Department of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University in January 2017. The Textbook consists of 17 chapters. They correspond to the themes of the syllabus of the academic discipline. In its General part, the history, object, subjects, sources, special principles of international sports law, the process of regulation of international sports relations at the universal level within the framework of the United Nations, its specialised agencies and programs, at the regional level within the Council of Europe and the European Union, at the bilateral level are considered. The Author makes a corresponding distinction with the object, subjects, sources, special principles of lex sportiva, a set of corporate norms elaborated by the International Olympic Committee, the International Paraiympic Committee, international and national sports federations. Special attention is paid to the study of ways of resolving sports disputes through arbitration and appeal proceedings in the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), by means of judicial proceedings in the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The Special Part of the Textbook identifies problem areas that require additional efforts to implement international legal and corporate regulations: the use of doping in sport, violence and hooligan behaviour of spectators and fans, environmental protection when organising international sports competitions, economic crimes and discrimination in international sports, protection of property rights with regard to television and radio broadcasts of international sports competitions, the use of Olympic symbols, countering threats to a healthy lifestyle. International instruments and acts of the Russian legislation are as of May 2018. The Textbook will be of interest for Bachelor students of law, lecturers of higher education institutions, practicing lawyers, staff members of organizations of the Olympic and Paraiympic movements, as well as for all those whose academic interests and practical activities are connected with international law, sports law and lex sportiva.
Andrew Kinder International Handbook of Workplace Trauma Support Andrew Kinder International Handbook of Workplace Trauma Support Новинка

Andrew Kinder International Handbook of Workplace Trauma Support

4242.04 руб. или Купить в рассрочку!
The International Handbook of Workplace Trauma Support provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary standards and best practices in trauma support that draws from the latest research findings and experience of international experts in the field. Reviews the major contemporary post-trauma intervention models in both theory and practice Includes Trauma Risk Management (TRiM), Support Post Trauma (SPoT), Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Mindfulness and Psychological First Aid (PFA) Incorporates multi-cultural perspectives by reporting on the pervasive violence in South Africa, constant threats in Israel and emerging developments in China Includes social, psychosocial, psychological, and organizational dimensions to offer a detailed mapping of trauma support Provides latest thinking for supporting those in the military context
Stefan Kirchner Human rights and international security Stefan Kirchner Human rights and international security Новинка

Stefan Kirchner Human rights and international security

Document from the year 2008 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, , 70 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: With the advent of Human Rights in international law, several core ideas of the traditional system of international law have been challenged, such as the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty, as well as the prohibition of the use of force, especially with the decision that massive human rights violations can form a threat to international peace and security to which the UN Security Council can respond with measures according to Chapter VII of the UN Charter.While at first sight a change of paradigm in international law, or in any legal system, is not negative per se, the rules which collide with a truly effective and universal protection of HR through international law are the very rules which form the foundation for international peace and security, the primary reason for the existence of international law. While international peace and security require the stability provided by the Westphalian system, they can at the same time be endangered by massive violations of human rights. On the other hand can Human Rights only be enjoyed in times of peace while the Westphalian system can limit the effective and universal enforcement of Human Rights in cases in which the UN Security Council has failed to take action under Chapter VII.This short book is an attempt at reconciling these needs which are at ...
Dr. Mark O'Doherty A Country without Leadership - Social Political Challenges facing South Africa after Nelson Mandela's Death Dr. Mark O'Doherty A Country without Leadership - Social Political Challenges facing South Africa after Nelson Mandela's Death Новинка

Dr. Mark O'Doherty A Country without Leadership - Social Political Challenges facing South Africa after Nelson Mandela's Death

This evidence-based research study explores social and political challenges in South Africa, such as public safety, public health, poverty and ethnic tensions in the country. The other main theme of this volume is if and how Nelson Mandella's legacy of a just peace can be upheld in South Africa, and how previously unrecognized or infrequently considered social-political challenges, such as the radical left-wing elements in the ANC government, violent crimes caused by poverty, HIV, as well as the conflict between mainstream medicine and traditional medicine in South Africa, can be overcome. The observations and interpretations in this volume are supported by a qualitative research study, that included observational studies, participating observation, field research and inter-cultural communication.Additionally this book contains autobiographical accounts of a deeply profound and humorous nature, emphasizing the strong bond of empathy which the author shares with his homeland, South Africa.
Mirjam de Bruijn Digitalization and the Field of African Studies Mirjam de Bruijn Digitalization and the Field of African Studies Новинка

Mirjam de Bruijn Digitalization and the Field of African Studies

Urbanization in Africa also means rapid technological change. At the turn of the 21st century, mobile telephony appeared in urban Africa. Ten years later, it covered large parts of rural Africa and – thanks to the smartphone – became the main access to the internet. This development is part of technological transformations in digitalization that are supposed to bridge the urban and the rural and will make their borders blurred. They do so through the creation of economic opportunities, the flow of information and by influencing people’s definition of self, belonging and citizenship. These changes are met with huge optimism and the message of Information and Communications Technologies for Development (ICT4D) for Africa has been one of glory and revolution. Practice, however, reveals other sides. Increasingly, academic publications show that we are facing a new form of digital divide in which Africa is (again) at the margins.These technological transformations influence the relation between urban and rural Africa, and between ‘Africa’ and the World, and hence the field of African Studies both in its objects as well as in its forms of knowledge production and in the formulation of the problems we should study. In this lecture, Mirjam de Bruijn reflects on two decades of research experience in West and Central Africa and discusses how, for her, the field has changed. The author was forced to decolonize her thinking even further, and to enter into co-creation in knowledge product...
Chi Atanga Nixon Ethnic Minority Crisis in Africa Chi Atanga Nixon Ethnic Minority Crisis in Africa Новинка

Chi Atanga Nixon Ethnic Minority Crisis in Africa

Master's Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: 4.10, , course: International Development and Cooperation, language: English, abstract: Many minority group conflicts and marginalization has been a challenge to the peaceful existence and development of many African countries. This research work is based on the topic: Ethnic Minority crisis in Africa, with case study that of The Anglophone problem in Cameroon and specifically looking at the socio-economic development.The former British Southern Cameroonians known as Anglophones claim they are been marginalized by the Francophone's who are the majority and ruling group. They claim that they are not politically represented both in government and decision making of the country and their regions, the North West and South West regions lag behind both in social and economic development mindful of the rich natural resources. This has created a sense of secessionist ideology. Attention is also focused on what the Anglophone movements like Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC), All Anglophone Council (AAC), and Southern Cameroon Youth League (SCYL) have been doing to eradicate this marginalization syndrome of Anglophones and response of the Cameroonian government to provide a solution to the crisis.
Territoriality, Citizenship and Peacebuilding. Perspectives on Challenges to Peace in Africa Territoriality, Citizenship and Peacebuilding. Perspectives on Challenges to Peace in Africa Новинка

Territoriality, Citizenship and Peacebuilding. Perspectives on Challenges to Peace in Africa

Civil conflicts in Africa range from few interstate wars to several intrastate conflicts characterized by secessionist movements, irredentism, coups and counter coups, genocide, wars of liberation to resource-based wars. The varied causes of conflicts in the continent's diverse and complex social formations are seen in ethnic terms and include struggles for economic/environmental resources, poor institutions of governance and issues of identity such as religion, language and racial differences. The core issue addressed in this volume is how to understand and explain the structural and analytical reasons for persistent civil conflicts in Africa. The core assumption is that most civil conflicts in Africa erupt largely because of the nature of state formation in the continent. Other significant variables that are explored as explanations for the persistent instances of civil conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa and the slow efforts at nation-building across the continent include issues of territoriality, climate change, ethnicity, ideological incongruities, institutional problems, the nature of postcolonial state, unreformed governance and economic structures, and corruption. This book also examines some sources of unresolved issues of territoriality and explains their connections to political violence and socio-political and cultural tensions across sub-Saharan Africa. It offers suggestions on how scholarly research and policies could help mediate if not mitigate future territor...
Herman J. Cohen THE MIND OF THE AFRICAN STRONGMAN. Conversations with Dictators, Statesmen, and Father Figures Herman J. Cohen THE MIND OF THE AFRICAN STRONGMAN. Conversations with Dictators, Statesmen, and Father Figures Новинка

Herman J. Cohen THE MIND OF THE AFRICAN STRONGMAN. Conversations with Dictators, Statesmen, and Father Figures

This book offers a colorful and penetrating look at African cultural norms and imperatives at the core of African political and economic performance over the past half-century. The author served in five US embassies in Africa and as Assistant Secretary of State for Africa, this provided him with unique opportunities to engage in private conversations with African heads of state. Despite billions of dollars of international development assistance poured into Africa since 1955, and despite huge earnings from commodity sales, Africa has lagged far behind most other emerging nations in economic growth and poverty reduction. Through these conversations, Cohen provides an opportunity to the African leaders he knew to tell us personally why the initial enthusiasm that accompanied independence went so badly awry. A new third generation of African leadership is now coming to the fore. The key question is, can they and the international donor community learn from and overcome the negative legacies of their predecessors? "Hank Cohen's experience in Africa and access to a wide array of historic African leaders are unparalleled. This unique book provides important lessons from the continent's past and insights for its future." -KENNETH L. BROWN, formerly U.S. ambassador to Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Republic of Congo and president, Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training "That individuals often do make a difference is the thesis of The Mind of the African St...
Samuel Lugeiyamu Mutasa Child Upbringing. The Pivotal Role of Mothers in Various Cultures and Religions Samuel Lugeiyamu Mutasa Child Upbringing. The Pivotal Role of Mothers in Various Cultures and Religions Новинка

Samuel Lugeiyamu Mutasa Child Upbringing. The Pivotal Role of Mothers in Various Cultures and Religions

Child upbringing is a world challenge. The ever-changing international interactions have made it a household subject. It needs concerted efforts to come up with loving, peaceful, and developed international communities. Parents, communities, religions, governments, and international organizations are duty-bound. Comparative steps being taken in different cultures, religions, and governments around the world are summarized. The role of mothers as building blocks for upbringing cherished children is emphasized. Bi Mugaya wa Nyang’ombe, mother of the late Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere of Tanzania is taken as an example. Some of the lessons from Nyerere’s fifty quotes witness the importance of mothers in child upbringing. Liberation of Southern Africa and Tanzania’s peace are related to the cherished upbringing role played by his mother. Child upbringing in the developed world is the duty of parents and the government. In Africa and Asia, extended families and communities are also involved. These involvements are not in literature. They appear in this book. In addition, teachers are urged to play parental roles. Nikolas Cruz of Florida, US, who killed fellow students, lacked love. Love of teachers to their students is emphasizes as an arsenal against school violence. This book is a must-read.
Gebhard Deissler The Intercultural Complementarity And Integration Principle Gebhard Deissler The Intercultural Complementarity And Integration Principle Новинка

Gebhard Deissler The Intercultural Complementarity And Integration Principle

Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2012 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, , course: Interkulturelles Management, language: English, abstract: This intercultural investigation starts where state-of-the-art research usually ends. Therefore it can provide valuable impulses to innovative management thinking and practice in the field of international diversity management.

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The Textbook was prepared in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard for Higher Education as applied to specialisation 40.03.01 "Jurisprudence" (Bachelor (degree) qualification) and the syllabus of the academic discipline "International Sports Law", approved by the International Law Department of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University in January 2017. The Textbook consists of 17 chapters. They correspond to the themes of the syllabus of the academic discipline. In its General part, the history, object, subjects, sources, special principles of international sports law, the process of regulation of international sports relations at the universal level within the framework of the United Nations, its specialised agencies and programs, at the regional level within the Council of Europe and the European Union, at the bilateral level are considered. The Author makes a corresponding distinction with the object, subjects, sources, special principles of lex sportiva, a set of corporate norms elaborated by the International Olympic Committee, the International Paraiympic Committee, international and national sports federations. Special attention is paid to the study of ways of resolving sports disputes through arbitration and appeal proceedings in the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), by means of judicial proceedings in the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The Special Part of the Textbook identifies problem areas that require additional efforts to implement international legal and corporate regulations: the use of doping in sport, violence and hooligan behaviour of spectators and fans, environmental protection when organising international sports competitions, economic crimes and discrimination in international sports, protection of property rights with regard to television and radio broadcasts of international sports competitions, the use of Olympic symbols, countering threats to a healthy lifestyle. International instruments and acts of the Russian legislation are as of May 2018. The Textbook will be of interest for Bachelor students of law, lecturers of higher education institutions, practicing lawyers, staff members of organizations of the Olympic and Paraiympic movements, as well as for all those whose academic interests and practical activities are connected with international law, sports law and lex sportiva.
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